All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena


Groups of people involved in social interaction, large social groups sharing the same geographical or social territory, often with similar cultural preferences - nations, communities, humanity.

  • Planting Trees with Tools Made of Guns 

    In Mexico, artist Pedro Reyes collected 1,527 guns for the project, Palas pro Pistolas, he had them melted down and transformed into 1,527 shovel heads. These new shovels were then distributed to art institutions and public schools, where people in the community are now using them to plant a minimum of 1,527 trees.

  • UN Urges Global Move to Vegan Diet

    United Nations report 2010: A global shift towards a vegan diet is vital to save the world from hunger, fuel poverty, and the worst impacts of climate change.

    Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.

  • Habitat Loss to Pasture and Feed Crops

    Species-rich habitats are being converted to pasture and feed crops as the human appetite for meat swells. By 2050, given current trends, 15 countries, which harbor the largest number of species will likely increase the lands used for livestock production by 30%-50%—some 3,000,000 square kilometers.
    The habitat loss is so great that it will cause more extinctions than any other factor, particularly when coupled with other deleterious effects of livestock production, including climate change and pollution. Many species will be lost.

  • Spotting Bad Science by Andy Brunning

    Many of us rely on media that publish scientific research to adjust our nutrition. Here is something to remember, when evaluating it.

    Spotting Bad Science by a chemistry teacher from UK, Andy Brunning - 12 points to help you separate the science from the pseudoscience:

  • More Fruits and Vegetables Is Better

    “Eat more fruits and vegetables” is timeless advice that has the backing of a large body of evidence. Vegetables and fruits provide fiber, slowly digested carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, and numerous phytonutrients that have been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease, aging-related vision loss due to cataract and macular degeneration, and maintenance of bowel function. The connection between vegetables and fruits and cancer is less well established. Although they do not have a blanket anticancer effect, fruits and vegetables may work against specific cancers, including esophageal, stomach, lung, and colorectal cancer. 

    Fruits and vegetables should be consumed in abundance, which means a minimum of five servings a day—and more is better. As few as 1 in 4 persons in the United States meet this guideline.

    Patrick J. Skerrett, MA, Walter C. Willett

  • B12 Supplementation Effective Sublingually and Orally

    A dose of 500 µg of cobalamin given either sublingually or orally is effective in correcting cobalamin deficiency

  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency as a Worldwide Problem

    Pernicious anemia is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia throughout the world and especially in persons of European or African descent. Dietary deficiency of vitamin B12 due to vegetarianism is increasing and causes hyperhomocysteinemia.

    The breast-fed infant of a vitamin B12–deficient mother is at risk for severe developmental abnormalities, growth failure, and anemia. Elevated methylmalonic acid and/or total homocysteine are sensitive indicators of vitamin B12–deficient diets and correlate with clinical abnormalities.

    Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is a severe problem in the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, Central and South America, and selected areas in Africa. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency is not prevalent in Asia, except in vegetarians. Areas for research include intermittent vitamin B12 supplement dosing and better measurements of the bioavailability of B12 in fermented vegetarian foods and algae.

  • Fruit and Non-Communicable Diseases

    Insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases in the population.

    This study found convincing evidence for combining order of placement in a buffet and separating the fruits and vegetables, as a means to increase the quantity of self-served fruit and vegetables and decrease consumption of other meal components among male university students

    This study demonstrated that a nudge design consisting of changing the placement of F&V to the beginning of the serving sequence, and presenting the F&V components in separated bowls increases the self-served quantity of F&V and simultaneously decreased the quantity of non-F&V components in the intervention group and total energy intake.

  • Obesity and Global Food Supply

    Jonathan C.K. Wells:

    "Obesity, like under-nutrition, is thus fundamentally a state of malnutrition, in each case promoted by powerful profit-led manipulations of the global supply and quality of food."

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. 

  • Ten Thousands Trees for a Wedding

    Priyanka Bhadoriya requested to plant 10,000 trees around her home in honor of her wedding day, instead of gold and diamonds. Trees play a vital role in regulating temperatures and aiding precipitation. When deforestation occurs, it can throw the entire ecosystem off leading to severe droughts.

Simone Weil

Imaginary good is boring; real good is always new, marvelous, intoxicating.

Protein Structure, Cooked and Denatured Proteins

Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in a chain is known as the primary structure of a protein. The chains fold up to form complex three dimensional shapes. The chains can fold on themselves locally (secondary structure) and wrap around themselves to form a specific three dimensional shape (tertiary structure).

The secondary / tertiary structure of a folded protein is directly related to its function. For example, enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions. They have binding sites that interact with other molecules. These binding sites are created through the folding of the amino acid chains that gives rise to the three dimensional shape of the enzyme.

Denatured Protein

Denaturation of proteins involves the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds, the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. Denaturation disrupts the normal sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape.

Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. which may be disrupted. 

Proteins can be denatured through exposure to heat or chemicals. Denatured proteins lose their three dimensional structure and thus their function. 

Digestion of Proteins and Cooking

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the acidic environment favors protein denaturation. Denatured proteins are more accessible as substrates for proteolysis than are native proteins. The primary proteolytic enzyme of the stomach is pepsin, a nonspecific protease that is maximally active at pH 2. Thus, pepsin can be active in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, even though other proteins undergo denaturation there.

Heat disrupts hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate so rapidly and violently that the bonds are disrupted

Foods are cooked to denature the proteins to make it easier for enzymes to digest them. Cooking food denatures some of the proteins in it and makes digestion more efficient. Heating to denature proteins in bacteria and thus destroy the bacteria. Apple