All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Society

Groups of people involved in social interaction, large social groups sharing the same geographical or social territory, often with similar cultural preferences - nations, communities, humanity.

  • Blue Iridescent Fruits without Pigment

    Blue iridescent berry, no blue pigment

    Blue African fruit of a plant plant Pollia condensata contains no blue pigment. The blue and its iridescent shine are caused by a Bragg reflection - intense peaks of light generated at certain wavelengths and angles - created by spirally stacked cellulose fibers that form multiple layers in the fruit's skin.

  • Cooled Tomatoes Have Less Flavour

    Cooling tomatoes at temperatures below 12 degrees Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit, hampers the enzymes in the fruit - they are less effective at combining volatile compounds, which are crucial for imparting the tomatoes' flavor. The taste of tomatoes is determined by the interactions of sugars, acids and a set of 15 to 20 volatile compounds. 

    7 Days of cold exposure reduced the levels of volatile compounds by up to 65%. The brief recovery periods after chilling failed to restore the fruits' volatiles to normal levels.

    Commercial tomatoes are widely perceived by consumers as lacking flavor. A major part of that problem is a postharvest handling system that chills fruit. Low-temperature storage is widely used to slow ripening and reduce decay. However, chilling results in loss of flavor. 

  • Banana Industry Environmental Impact

    The banana industry is dominated by 5 international companies. When bananas are grown on a large monocultural scale, thousands of tonnes of toxic pesticides are poured on the plantations often sprayed from planes overhead. Five of the chemicals used on bananas are classified as extremely hazardous by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Banana bunches are often wrapped on the tree with pesticide-coated plastic bags for protection. 

  • Against Freelee, Durianrider, 30bananasaday, RawTill4

    If some people tell you that you need to drink multiple liters of water and eat over 3000-5000 food calories every day regardless what your individual needs may be, if they advise you to sleep half of your lifetime without providing any supporting scientific data, if they tell you to never ever consume toxic temperature treated foods and then later switch the recommendation to any carbs, if they say you can eat tons of low fat stuff like potatoes and do not ever gain weight, if they try to alienate you from the rest of humanity by urging you to speak up and give ultimatums anytime anybody use any animal products, but they start with slamming people who are their direct competitors on the media market for trading only one ethically questionable product in small quantities, and in the same time they never discuss how some huge banana companies destroyed vast areas of wildlife, if they justify anything they say by their caring for animals and the planet, if they shame people with other body shapes and call it love, if they delete all challenging data on their sites, and tell people who are not successful on the regiment that they just lie, do something wrong or simply need years for a good lifestyle to start working, and then they tell you, that this is the only way to be healthy and considerate, - please do not necessarily believe it

  • Banana Industry Impacts Rainforests

    According to Rainforest Relief, Americans should still avoid purchasing bananas altogether and instead opt for fruit grown locally, such as apples, peaches, cherries or pears.

    Banana plantations were infamous for their environmental and social abuses, which included the use of dangerous pesticides, poor working conditions, water pollution and deforestation. Pesticide-impregnated plastic bags, which protect bananas as they grow, often littered riverbanks and beaches near banana farms, while agrochemical runoff and erosion killed fish, clogged rivers and choked coral reefs.

    The group is hopeful that its work with farm cooperatives growing organic bananas under the shade of a diverse forest canopy in Costa Rica can eventually drive the larger international banana market toward better land use and worker safety standards.

  • Plants can Learn and Make Decisions

    History of Plant Studies: 

    In the centuries following the time of Aristotle and his students, who made the first philosophical attempts to understand plants in their complexity, interest in herb plants was limited mainly to their medical usage. This changed in the sixteenth century when the first biological attempts were done to understand the basic principles of structure and function of plants. At first, studies were largely devoted to plant distribution, taxonomy, and morphology. Later, taking the lead from medicine, anatomy and cytology of plants were added to the curriculum of plant sciences, as studied in the early universities.

    In fact, the cellular nature of living organisms was first elaborated using plants (Hooke 1665). By the end of the 19th century, it was realised that plants were even more similar to animals than had been thought hitherto.

    • For their reproduction, plants use identical sexual processes.
    • Plants attacked by pathogens develop immunity, using the corresponding processes and mechanisms in animals.
    • Both animals and plants use the same molecules and pathways to drive their circadian rhythms.

    Critical mass of new data has been accumulated, culminating in the emergence of plant neurobiology.

    Plants are intelligent organisms, which perform complex information processing. The word "neuron" was taken by animal neurobiologists from Greek where the original meaning of this word is vegetal fibre.

    Auxin emerges as a plant-specific neurotransmitter. Roots are specialized not only for the uptake of nutrients, but also seem to support neuronal-like activities based on plant synapses. Vascular elements allow the rapid spread of hydraulic signals and action potentials, resembling nerves. Plants are capable of learning and make decisions about their future activities according to the actual environmental conditions. It is obvious that they possess a complex apparatus for the storage and processing of information.

  • Fluoride in Water and Dental or Skeletal Fluorosis

    There is no good evidence of any adverse medical effects associated with the consumption of water with fluoride naturally or artificially added at a concentration of 0.5 – 1.0 mg / litre other than the increase in dental fluorosis. US studies in areas with natural fluoride levels of up to 8 mg / litre found no clinical evidence of harm. However there is clear evidence from India and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur as a result of long-term excessive exposure to fluoride (total intakes of 14 mg fluoride per day), and evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at total intakes above about 6 mg fluoride per day.

  • Pomegranate Fruit Supplements and Juices

    Stay skeptical about fruit-containing supplements and pre-packaged juices: 

    A study was done on 27 supplements of pomegranate. Of the 27 tested only 5 appeared to be what the labels actually said.

    Another study looked at 45 commercial pomegranate juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. They each said 100% pomegranate juice on the label, but most of them lied. Only 6 out of 23 were what they said they were.

  • Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

    Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

    Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

    In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

    Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

  • Enterotypes and Microflora

    An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella. 

    • People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora
    • Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats. 
    • Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.

    Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention. 

    Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans. 

Erich Fromm

It is naively assumed that the fact that the majority of people share certain ideas and feelings proves the validity of these ideas and feelings. Nothing could be further from the truth. Consensual validation as such has no bearing on reason or mental health.

Viruses

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

There are millions types of viruses, ~ 5,000 virus species have been described in detail. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear. 

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, virions, which consist of the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, a protein coat, and in some cases an outer coat of lipids. Virion is about one one-hundredth the size of a bacterium.

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