All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

vitamins minerals phytonutrients

  • Vitamin A from Common Plant Sources and Rare Fruits

    Provitamin A carotenoids are found in green leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach, amaranth, and young leaves from various sources), yellow vegetables (e.g. pumpkins, squash, and carrots), and yellow and orange non-citrus fruits (e.g. mangoes, apricots, and papayas).

    Red palm oil produced in several countries worldwide is especially rich in provitamin A.

    Some other indigenous plants also may be unusually rich sources of provitamin A: 

    • palm fruit known in Brazil as burití, found in areas along the Amazon River (as well as elsewhere in Latin America), 
    • fruit known as gac in Viet Nam (used to colour rice). 
  • Iron Excess and Deficiency Depends on Environment

    The differences in quantification of obligatory losses of iron made by various expert groups is possibly explained by differences in environmental sanitation and the prevalence of diarrhoea. The presence of dietary components that affect bioavailability differs between and within a given ecological setting. 

    The concern about iron excess may be greater in places where anaemia is no longer an issue (e.g. in northern Europe), but in other areas iron deficiency is significant.

  • Calcium Adequate Intake US vs International

    Adequate calcium intake levels suggested for the United States of America are higher than those accepted internationally, and extend the increased needs of adolescents to young adults. Peak bone mass continues to increase until age of 24 years. Results of bone density measurements support the need for calcium intake beyond that required for calcium balance and retention for growth.

    However, the situation in most Asian countries suggests that their populations may have sufficient calcium retention and bone mass despite lower levels of intake.

    Calcium intake may need to be adjusted for dietary factors (e.g. observed animal protein, sodium intake, vitamin D intake) and for sun exposure, since both affect calcium retention.

  • All Known Essential Vitamins

    Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins:

    • Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, 4 carotenoids)
    • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    • Vitamin D (D3 - Cholecalciferol, D2 - Ergocalciferol)
    • Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)
    • Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
    • Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
    • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
    • Vitamin B3 (niacin)
    • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
    • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
    • Vitamin B7 (biotin)
    • Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
    • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

    Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue: vitamins A, D, E, K

    Water-soluble vitamins - the body must use almost all water-soluble vitamins right away - vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and C.
    Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

  • Vitamin B3 against Cardiovascular Events

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin or nicotinic acid) raises the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) by about 30% to 35%. Niacin was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular events and possible small but non-significant decreases in coronary and cardiovascular mortality.

  • Vitamin B3 Niacin

    Vitamin B3, Niacin, nicotinic acid, helps to convert food into energy and is essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system. It is one of 8 B vitamins. It is water-soluble, which means it is not stored in the body. It has 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects. 

    Niacin occurs naturally in food and can also be made by your body from the amino acid tryptophan, with the help of B6

    It is rare for anyone in the developed world to have a Vitamin B3 deficiency; alcoholism is the main cause of it in the US.

    Recommended daily amount: 14 - 16 mg.

    Example sources: whole grains, mushrooms, peanuts and other legumes. 

    Fruits (100 g) : 

    1. Peaches or Apricots, dried - Niacin: 4 mg 
    2. Avocados, raw or Dates, medjool  - Niacin: 2 mg 

    Seeds (100 g):

    1. Rice bran, crude - Niacin: 34 mg 
    2. Sesame flour - Niacin: 13 mg 
    3. Sunflower seed kernels, dried - Niacin: 8 mg 

  • Zinc for the Common Cold

    The common cold is often caused by the rhinovirus. It is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absence from school and work. Complications of the common cold include ear infection, sinusitis and exacerbations of reactive airway diseases. There is no proven treatment for the common cold.  Zinc appears to interfere with the replication of rhinoviruses.

    Zinc inhibits replication of the virus and has been tested in trials for treatment of the common cold. In 18 randomised controlled trials with 1781 participants of all age groups, zinc was compared with placebo (no zinc). Zinc (lozenges or syrup) reduces the average duration of the common cold in healthy people, when taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. 

  • B12 in Fermented Korean Vegan Foods and Seaweeds

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians on the traditional semi-vegetarian was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, also Gochujang, Ganjang (soy sauce), cabbage Kimchi, and seaweeds (laver, sea lettuce, sea tangle, sea mustardcontain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Soybeans (steamed) and tofu do not contain B12. 

    Laver, dried, seasoned & toasted - 55 -71 mcg in 100 g dry weight

    Sea lettuce, raw  -  85 mcg in 100 g dry weight

  • Vitamin B1 Thiamine

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Thiamine) is one of 8 B vitamins, the first B vitamin discovered. All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which the body uses to produce energy, B-complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. All B vitamins are water soluble.

    All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, therefore for humans it is an essential nutrient.  Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.

    B1 helps convert food into energy, needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain. 

    Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.

    Recommended daily amount: 1.1 - 1.2 mg (~ 50 g of flaxseeds, or sesame tahini, or 100 g pine or sunflower seeds, or corn flour).

  • Vitamin A

    Retinoids retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid - 3 active forms of vitamin A - "preformed" vitamin A.

    Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A by the human body. 

    Large amounts of supplemental vitamin A (but not beta carotene) can be harmful to bones.

    Vitamin A keeps tissues and skin healthy, plays an important role in bone growth. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. Essential for vision lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk.

    Recommended daily amount: 700 mcg - 900 mcg or 3 mg - 6 mg beta-carotene (~ 1 cup of raw cantaloupe or sweet red peppers, or 2 mangoes, or 1/5 of one baked sweet potato). 

    Because the body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol, 1 mcg of physiologically available retinol is equivalent to the following amounts from dietary sources: 1 mcg of retinol, 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. From dietary supplements, the body converts 2 mcg of beta-carotene to 1 mcg of retinol.

Leonardo da Vinci

I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men.

Protists

Protists - members of an informal grouping of diverse eukaryotic organisms that are not animals, plants or fungi, and are grouped together for convenience, like algae or invertebrates. Besides their relatively simple levels of organization, protists do not necessarily have much in common. 

Subdivisions of Protists

Protozoa the unicellular "animal-like" - Flagellata, Ciliophora, Amoeba, Sporozoans.

Protophyta the "plant-like" - mostly unicellular algae.

Molds the "fungus-like" - slime molds and water molds.

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