All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

carbohydrates proteins fats

Macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats
  • WHO on Protein and Amino Acid Requirements

    Protein Requirement Recommendation

    The requirement indicated by the meta-analysis (a median requirement of 105 mg nitrogen/kg per day or 0.66 g/kg per day of protein) can be accepted as the best estimate of a population average requirement for healthy adults.

    General recommendation

    For adults, the protein requirement per kg body weight is considered to be the same for both sexes, at all ages, and for all body weights within the acceptable range. The value accepted for the safe level of intake is 0.83 g/kg per day, for proteins with a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score value of 1.0. No safe upper limit has been identified... (p. 242)

    Range Body weight Safe level of protein intake (score 1.0)
    From 40 kg 33 g per day
    To 80 kg 66 gper day
  • Lysine and Leucine in Fruit Safou

    Concentrations of some essential amino acids in fruit safou (Dacryodes edulis), such as lysine and leucine, are comparable to concentrations found in eggs.

  • More Fruits and Vegetables Is Better

    “Eat more fruits and vegetables” is timeless advice that has the backing of a large body of evidence. Vegetables and fruits provide fiber, slowly digested carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, and numerous phytonutrients that have been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease, aging-related vision loss due to cataract and macular degeneration, and maintenance of bowel function. The connection between vegetables and fruits and cancer is less well established. Although they do not have a blanket anticancer effect, fruits and vegetables may work against specific cancers, including esophageal, stomach, lung, and colorectal cancer. 

    Fruits and vegetables should be consumed in abundance, which means a minimum of five servings a day—and more is better. As few as 1 in 4 persons in the United States meet this guideline.

    Patrick J. Skerrett, MA, Walter C. Willett

  • Lean Meat is Not Pure Protein

    "Lean meat" is a misleading term. I noticed many times in conversations that people who think that they eat "proteins" tend to think about this food group as an almost pure protein, a perfect set of essential amino acids. Especially if they consume so called "lean meats." 

    In beef (presented as "90% lean meat") - half of the calories are from fat (http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/beef-products/6193/2). Even in the leanest bird meat approximately the fifth of the energy is from fat, ~18% in the leanest I could find (http://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/poultry-products/704/2).

    Digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of protein in beef is only 0.92, chicken - 0.91(?), and egg whites and soy - 1 or 100% (not that it matters much). Note, that 62% of calories in a whole egg are from fat, and 40% in soybeans. 

  • Sugars Can Be Turned into Fat

    When we are eating excess amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), liver converts the carbon compounds from sugar into fatty acid, and then fat.

    If we continue to consume too much of sugars, complex or simple, and to accumulate fat, especially in the waist area, we can develop insulin resistance.

  • High-Fat Diets and Obecity

    High-fat diets and low physical activity levels may accentuate the susceptibility to obesity by the FTO variant. The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been shown to be associated with obesity and to influence appetite regulation.

John Stuart Mill

A person may cause evil to others not only by his actions but by his inaction, and in either case he is justly accountable to them for the injury.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or L-ascorbic acid, or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans, a water-soluble vitamin. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. 

  • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen (an essential component of connective tissue), L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, it is also involved in protein metabolism.
  • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E by reducing vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. 
  • Vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and improves the absorption of nonheme iron, the form of iron present in plant-based foods.

Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg a day. At doses above 1 g a day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine. 

Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility.

Cells accumulate vitamin C. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g.

  • High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain.
  • Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.

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