Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Thiamine) is one of 8 B vitamins, the first B vitamin discovered. All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which the body uses to produce energy, B-complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. All B vitamins are water soluble.
All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, therefore for humans it is an essential nutrient. Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.
B1 helps convert food into energy, needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain.
Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.
Recommended daily amount: 1.1 - 1.2 mg (~ 50 g of flaxseeds, or sesame tahini, or 100 g pine or sunflower seeds, or corn flour).
Zinc is a nutritionally essential mineral needed for catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions in the body.
The RDA (recommended daily allowance) for adult women and men is 8 mg a day and 11 mg a day of zinc, respectively.
Severe zinc deficiency is a rare, genetic or acquired condition. Dietary zinc deficiency, often called marginal zinc deficiency, is quite common in the developing world, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Zinc deficiency can cause impaired growth and development in children, pregnancy complications, immune dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term consumption of zinc in excess of the tolerable upper intake level of 40 mg a day for adults can result in copper deficiency.
Zinc bioavailability is relatively high in meat, eggs, and seafood. Zinc is less bioavailable from whole grains and legumes due to the inhibitory effects of phytic acid on absorption of the mineral.