Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Thiamine) is one of 8 B vitamins, the first B vitamin discovered. All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which the body uses to produce energy, B-complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. All B vitamins are water soluble.
All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, therefore for humans it is an essential nutrient. Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.
B1 helps convert food into energy, needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain.
Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.
Recommended daily amount: 1.1 - 1.2 mg (~ 50 g of flaxseeds, or sesame tahini, or 100 g pine or sunflower seeds, or corn flour).
Retinoids retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid - 3 active forms of vitamin A - "preformed" vitamin A.
Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A by the human body.
Large amounts of supplemental vitamin A (but not beta carotene) can be harmful to bones.
Vitamin A keeps tissues and skin healthy, plays an important role in bone growth. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. Essential for vision lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk.
Recommended daily amount: 700 mcg - 900 mcg or 3 mg - 6 mg beta-carotene (~ 1 cup of raw cantaloupe or sweet red peppers, or 2 mangoes, or 1/5 of one baked sweet potato).
Because the body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol, 1 mcg of physiologically available retinol is equivalent to the following amounts from dietary sources: 1 mcg of retinol, 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. From dietary supplements, the body converts 2 mcg of beta-carotene to 1 mcg of retinol.