All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Because the system for disposal of excess nitrogen is efficient, protein intakes moderately above requirement are believed to be safe.

Brenner et al. (1982) postulated that excess protein intake accelerates the processes that lead to renal glomerular sclerosis, a common phenomenon of aging. There is supportive evidence from studies in animals, but not in humans on this point. Urinary calcium excretion increases with increased protein intake if phosphorus intake is constant. If phosphorus intake increases with protein intake, as it does in U.S. diets, the effect of protein is minimized.

Habitual intakes of protein in the United States are substantially above the requirement, and although there is no firm evidence that these intake levels are harmful, it has been deemed prudent to maintain an upper bound of no more than twice the RDA for protein.

Charles Darwin

There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher animals in their mental faculties . . . The lower animals, like man, manifestly feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery.


Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals (e.g. wheat, rye) and legumes (e.g. beans, soybeans). Seeds

After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (e.g. plantains, breadfruit) and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava). This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported, stored for long periods, and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Major global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Apple