Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians on the traditional semi-vegetarian was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, also Gochujang, Ganjang (soy sauce), cabbage Kimchi, and seaweeds (laver , sea lettuce, sea tangle, sea mustard ) contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Soybeans (steamed) and tofu do not contain B12.
Laver, dried, seasoned & toasted - 55 -71 mcg in 100 g dry weight
Sea lettuce, raw - 85 mcg in 100 g dry weight
Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.
The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.
Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline
Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Soybeans - 124 mg
- Lima beans - 97 mg
- Lentils - 96 mg
- Peas (mature) - 96 mg
- Flaxseeds - 79 mg
- Pistachio nuts - 71 mg
- Quinoa - 70 mg
- Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) - 63 mg
- Cashew nuts - 61 mg
- Pine nuts - 56 mg
- Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg
- Buckwheat - 54 mg
- Almonds - 52 mg
Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg
- Apples - 18 mg
- Figs - 16 mg
- Avocados - 14 mg