All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

weight

  • Thermic Effect of Food and Negative Calories

    Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

    A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

    1. the total caloric content of the meals,
    2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

    Macronutrients:

    The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

    • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
    • Carbohydratesand fats5-15 %.

    Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

    Insulin

    Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

    Exercise

    The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

    • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
    • and by anaerobic weight training.

    "Negative"  Caloric Balance

    Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

  • Fruit and Diabetes Type 2

    Researchers in Denmark randomized 63 patients to high fruit or low fruit intake, and after 12 weeks, the 2 groups had similar drops in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, weight, and girth. They enrolled patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes who had been referred for nutritional counseling. The patients were an even mix of men and women, with a mean age of 58 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.  

    Allan S. Christensen, the lead of the research group: 

    We conclude that advice to restrict fruit intake as part of standard [medical nutrition therapy] in overweight adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus does not improve glycemic control, body weight, or waist circumference.

    The 32 subjects in the low-fruit-intake group were advised eat no more than 2 pieces of fruit a day, whereas the 31 subjects in the high-fruit-intake group were told to indulge in 2 or more pieces of fruit a day.

    A piece of fruit was defined as the amount that contained about 10 g of carbohydrate - for example, an apple (100 g), half a banana (50 g), or an orange (125 g). The subjects were also instructed to eat whole fruit, skip dried fruit, and not drink fruit juice.

    Over the 12 weeks, on average, fruit consumption rose from 194 g/day to 319 g/day in the high-intake group and decreased from 186 g/day to 135 g/day in the low-intake group.

    Patients in the high-fruit-intake group had a significant drop in HbAIC levels, from 6.74% to 6.26%. They also lost about 2 kg (from 92 kg to 90 kg) and trimmed their waist by about 4 cm (from 103 to 99 cm). Similar results were obtained by patients in the low-fruit-intake group, and there were no significant between-group differences in these 3 outcomes.

  • Overnutrition

    Overnutrition, a type of malnutrition, is emerging with rates of obesity and related chronic diseases associated with urbanisation, aging populations, technological development and globalisation of food supplies and industry. Billions of dollars are spent annually by the food industry to promote the consumption of highly refined, high-calorie foods with little or no nutritional value. 

    At least 35 million overweight children are living in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries. Children are increasingly exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods which tend to be cheaper than healthy foods. General imbalance in energy intake compared to physical activity levels is driving the obesity epidemic. In industrialised countries, child obesity risk is associated with lower household income, women with less education, and single parent households.

    Obesity is increasingly prevalent among adolescent girls and women, as access to a greater quantity of inexpensive, tasty, and convenient foods increases. 

    Taxation on high-calorie, low-nutrition foods can play a significant role in reducing the consumption of such products. Population-wide weight-control campaigns that raise awareness among medical staff, policy-makers and the public at large can also help to reduce obesity. Particularly important is the promotion of health literacy. Additional measures include restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy foods and sugary drinks to children, and controls on the use of misleading health and nutrition claims; mandatory front-of-pack food labelling helps consumers to identify healthier options. 

  • Weight Loss with Fruits and Vegetables

    An increase in total fruit intake was associated with a change in weight of -0.53 lb (a weight loss of 0.24 kg), and an increase in total vegetable intake was associated with a weight change of -0.25 lb (a weight loss of 0.11 kg) - for each extra daily serving over a 4 years period.

    133,468 US men and women were followed for up to 24 years. The benefits of increased consumption were strongest for berries, apples or pears, tofu (soy), cauliflower, and cruciferous and green leafy vegetables. Increased satiety with fewer calories could be partly responsible. Obesity is a primary risk factor for many life-shortening health conditions.

  • Body Weight, Obesity, and BMI

    Body weight - person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, pounds, or stones and pounds. Body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

    People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 - overweight. 

    BMI, body mass index - a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. 

    Obesity increases the likelihood of diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

    Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, low levels of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.

    On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

  • Obesity and Global Food Supply

    Jonathan C.K. Wells:

    "Obesity, like under-nutrition, is thus fundamentally a state of malnutrition, in each case promoted by powerful profit-led manipulations of the global supply and quality of food."

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. 

  • Sugars Can Be Turned into Fat

    When we are eating excess amounts of carbohydrates (sugars), liver converts the carbon compounds from sugar into fatty acid, and then fat.

    If we continue to consume too much of sugars, complex or simple, and to accumulate fat, especially in the waist area, we can develop insulin resistance.

  • High-Fat Diets and Obecity

    High-fat diets and low physical activity levels may accentuate the susceptibility to obesity by the FTO variant. The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been shown to be associated with obesity and to influence appetite regulation.

Carl Sagan

A sharp distinction between humans and “animals” is essential if we are to bend them to our will, make them work for us, wear them, eat them–without any disquieting tinges of guilt or regret. It is unseemly of us, who often behave so unfeeling toward other animals, to contend that only humans can suffer. The behavior of other animals renders such pretensions specious. They are just too much like us.

Water

Water is an essential nutrient - it is required in amounts that exceed the body's ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen. 

Most foods contain water. The body can usually get 20% of its total water requirements from solid foods alone. The human body can last weeks without food, but only days without water. 

The digestion process also produces water as a byproduct and can provide around 10 per cent of the body’s water requirements.  

Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 97% of the planet's crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps. Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes.

Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. ~One billion people still lack access to safe water. It was estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability, and by 2030 water demand in some developing regions of the world will exceed supply by 50%.

Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. 

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