All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

vitamins

vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts but cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet. Term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by healthy people.

13 Vitamins are universally recognized at present: A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C, D, E, K.

Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body. 

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin.

  • Vitamin B3 against Cardiovascular Events

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin or nicotinic acid) raises the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) by about 30% to 35%. Niacin was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular events and possible small but non-significant decreases in coronary and cardiovascular mortality.

  • Vitamin B3 Niacin

    Vitamin B3, Niacin, nicotinic acid, helps to convert food into energy and is essential for healthy skin, blood cells, brain, and nervous system. It is one of 8 B vitamins. It is water-soluble, which means it is not stored in the body. It has 2 other forms, niacinamide (nicotinamide) and inositol hexanicotinate, which have different effects. 

    Niacin occurs naturally in food and can also be made by your body from the amino acid tryptophan, with the help of B6

    It is rare for anyone in the developed world to have a Vitamin B3 deficiency; alcoholism is the main cause of it in the US.

    Recommended daily amount: 14 - 16 mg.

    Example sources: whole grains, mushrooms, peanuts and other legumes. 

    Fruits (100 g) : 

    1. Peaches or Apricots, dried - Niacin: 4 mg 
    2. Avocados, raw or Dates, medjool  - Niacin: 2 mg 

    Seeds (100 g):

    1. Rice bran, crude - Niacin: 34 mg 
    2. Sesame flour - Niacin: 13 mg 
    3. Sunflower seed kernels, dried - Niacin: 8 mg 

  • B12 in Fermented Korean Vegan Foods and Seaweeds

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians on the traditional semi-vegetarian was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, also Gochujang, Ganjang (soy sauce), cabbage Kimchi, and seaweeds (laver, sea lettuce, sea tangle, sea mustardcontain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Soybeans (steamed) and tofu do not contain B12. 

    Laver, dried, seasoned & toasted - 55 -71 mcg in 100 g dry weight

    Sea lettuce, raw  -  85 mcg in 100 g dry weight

  • Vitamin B1 Thiamine

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Thiamine) is one of 8 B vitamins, the first B vitamin discovered. All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which the body uses to produce energy, B-complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. All B vitamins are water soluble.

    All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, therefore for humans it is an essential nutrient.  Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.

    B1 helps convert food into energy, needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain. 

    Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.

    Recommended daily amount: 1.1 - 1.2 mg (~ 50 g of flaxseeds, or sesame tahini, or 100 g pine or sunflower seeds, or corn flour).

  • Vitamin A

    Retinoids retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid - 3 active forms of vitamin A - "preformed" vitamin A.

    Beta carotene can easily be converted to vitamin A by the human body. 

    Large amounts of supplemental vitamin A (but not beta carotene) can be harmful to bones.

    Vitamin A keeps tissues and skin healthy, plays an important role in bone growth. Diets rich in the carotenoids alpha carotene and lycopene seem to lower lung cancer risk. Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin may protect against cataracts. Essential for vision lycopene may lower prostate cancer risk.

    Recommended daily amount: 700 mcg - 900 mcg or 3 mg - 6 mg beta-carotene (~ 1 cup of raw cantaloupe or sweet red peppers, or 2 mangoes, or 1/5 of one baked sweet potato). 

    Because the body converts all dietary sources of vitamin A into retinol, 1 mcg of physiologically available retinol is equivalent to the following amounts from dietary sources: 1 mcg of retinol, 12 mcg of beta-carotene, and 24 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. From dietary supplements, the body converts 2 mcg of beta-carotene to 1 mcg of retinol.

  • Vitamin D Supplement and Calcium Long Term

    Supplementation of vitamin D is effective in preventing overall mortality in a long-term. It is not significantly effective in a treatment duration shorter than 3 years. 

    Vitamin D therapy significantly decreased all-cause mortality with a duration of follow-up longer than 3 years. No benefit was seen in a shorter follow-up periods. 

    The following subgroups of long-term follow-up had significantly fewer deaths:

    • female only,
    • participants with a mean age younger than 80,
    • daily dose of 800 IU or less,
    • participants with vitamin D insufficiency and cholecalciferol therapy.

    The combination of vitamin D and calcium significantly reduced mortality and vitamin D alone also had a trend to decrease mortality in a longer time follow up.

  • Carotenoids

    Carotenoids are a class of more than 750 pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These richly colored molecules are the sources of the yellow, orange, and red colors of many plants. Fruit and vegetables provide most of the 40 to 50 carotenoid phytonutrients found in the human diet.

    The most common carotenoids in North American diets are α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. 

    Provitamin A carotenoids - α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin - can be converted by the body to retinol (vitamin A), but not lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. 

    Dietary lutein and zeaxanthin help maintain optimal visual function - they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye.

    The results of observational studies suggest that diets high in carotenoid-rich fruit and vegetables are associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. But high-dose β-carotene supplements did not

  • Cobalamin Deficiency in Asian Indians

    In India, most people adhere to a vegetarian diet, which may lead to cobalamin deficiency. About 75% of the subjects had metabolic signs of cobalamin deficiency, which was only partly explained by the vegetarian diet.

    The study population included 204 men and women aged 27–55 y from Pune, Maharashtra, India, categorized into 4 groups:

    • patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes,
    • patients with CVD but no diabetes,
    • patients with diabetes but no CVD,
    • healthy subjects.

    Data on medical history, lifestyle, and diet were obtained by interviews and questionnaires. Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum or plasma total cobalamin, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy) and hemetologic indexes.

    1. Methylmalonic acid, total homocysteine, total cobalamin, and holotranscobalamin did not differ significantly among the 4 groups.
    2. Total cobalamin showed a strong inverse correlation with total homocysteine (r = −0.59) and methylmalonic acid (r = −0.54). 
    3. 47% of the subjects had cobalamin deficiency (total cobalamin <150 pmol/L),
    4. 73% had low holotranscobalamin (<35 pmol/L),
    5. 77% had hyperhomocysteinemia (total homocysteine >15 μmol/L),
    6. 73% had elevated serum methylmalonic acid (>0.26 μmol/L).

    These indicators of impaired cobalamin status were observed in both vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

  • Serum Vitamin B12 in Children

    Dietary vitamin B12 intake was inadequate in 43% in an extremely impoverished indigenous population of Panamanian children aged 12 to 60 months.

    These children were poorer, had less frequent diarrhea, and obtained a higher percentage of their energy from carbohydrate than children with adequate intake. Energy intake positively predicted dietary vitamin B12 intake. In contrast, serum vitamin B12 concentrations were normal in all but 3% of the children. Serum vitamin B12 was positively associated with weekly servings of fruit, corn-based food, and name (a traditional starchy food), but not with animal-source foods. Finally, serum vitamin B12 was not associated with Ascaris intensity but was lowered with increasing frequency of diarrhea.

    Although inadequate dietary intake of vitamin B12 was common, most serum values were normal. Nevertheless, diarrheal disease emerged as a negative predictor of serum vitamin B12 concentration.

  • Vitamin B12 Levels in Long-Term Vegans

    Serum vitamin B12, serum folate and red blood cell folate levels were examined among 36 strict vegans of 5-35 years' duration.

    Vitamin B12 levels among the vegans were generally lower than in a control population. Most of the vegans had vitamin B12 values less than 200 pg/ml

    None of the vegans had any hematologic evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency, however four of them had neurologic complaints. Long-standing vegans should be monitored for vitamin B12 levels.

    Red blood cell folate levels were normal but serum folate levels among the vegans were higher than among the controls. 

Leo Tolstoy

A man can live and be healthy without killing animals for food; therefore, if he eats meat, he participates in taking animal life merely for the sake of his appetite. And to act so is immoral. 

Protein Deficiency

Protein deficiency rarely occurs as an isolated condition. It usually accompanies a deficiency of dietary energy and other nutrients resulting from insufficient food intake.

Deficiency of this severity is very rare in the United States, except as a consequence of pathologic conditions.

The symptoms are most commonly seen in deprived children in poor countries:

  • stunting,
  • poor musculature,
  • edema,
  • thin and fragile hair,
  • skin lesions
  • hormonal imbalances.

Edema and loss of muscle mass and hair are the prominent signs in adults. 

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