All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

vitamins

vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts but cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet. Term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by healthy people.

13 Vitamins are universally recognized at present: A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C, D, E, K.

Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body. 

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin.

  • Calcium Intake and Bone Fracture Risk

    With the exception of calcium deficiency rickets in Nigeria, no satisfactory explanation has been found for the apparently low prevalence of osteoporosis in countries on low calcium intakes. On international comparisons on a larger scale, it is very difficult to separate genetic from environmental factors. Osteoporosis was largely a disease of affluent industrialized cultures. Hip fracture prevalence (and by implication osteoporosis) is consequently related to animal protein intake, but also, paradoxically, to calcium intake because of the strong correlation between calcium and protein intakes within and between societies. This could be explained if protein actually increased calcium requirement. 

    Fracture risk has recently been shown to be a function of protein intake in North American women. There is also suggestive evidence that hip fracture rates depend on protein intake, national income, and latitude. Vitamin D deficiency in hip fracture patients in the developed world was established. Such fractures can be successfully prevented with small doses of vitamin D and calcium. It is therefore possible that hip fracture rates may be related to protein intake, vitamin D status, or both.

  • 30 Minutes of Sunshine Vitamin D Recommendation

    In recommending intakes for vitamin D, it must be recognized that in most locations in the world in a broad band around the equator (latitudes 42°N - 42°S), the most physiologically relevant and efficient way of acquiring vitamin D is to synthesize it endogenously in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by sun (UV) light exposure.

    In most situations, ~ 30 minutes of skin exposure of the arms and face to sunlight can provide all the daily vitamin D needs of the body.

    Skin synthesis of vitamin D is negatively influenced by factors which may reduce the ability of the skin to provide the total needs of the individual:

    • latitude and season - both influence the amount of UV light reaching the skin;
    • ageingprocess - thinning of the skin reduces the efficiency of this synthetic process;
    • skin pigmentation - the presence of darker pigments in the skin interferes with the synthetic process because UV light cannot reach the appropriate layer of the skin;
    • clothing - virtually complete covering of the skin for medical, social, cultural, or religious reasons leaves insufficient skin exposed to sunlight;
    • sunscreen use - widespread and liberal use of sunscreen, though reducing skin damage by the sun deleteriously affects synthesis of vitamin D.

    Because not all of these problems can be solved in all geographic locations, particularly during winter at latitudes higher than 42° where synthesis is virtually zero, it is recommended that individuals not synthesizing vitamin D should correct their vitamin D status by consuming the amounts of vitamin D. 

    Recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for vitamin D, by group, in milligrams (1/1000 g):

    Infants, children, adolescents, and adults 19–50 years, pregnant and lactating women - mg a day RNI;

    Adults 51–65 years - 10 mg a day RNI

    Adults 65+ years - 15 mg a day RNI

  • Nori is the Best Known Seaweed Source of B12

    Vitamin B(12) concentrations of dried green (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple (Porphyra sp.) lavers nori were determined, in micrograms: 

    • green nori: 64 - 69 mcg per 100 g of dry weight,
    • purple nori: 32 - 25 mcg per 100 g of dry weight.

    Non-coenzyme forms (hydroxo and cyano forms) of vitamin B12 predominate in both. 

    Recommended dietary amounts (RDAs) for cobalamin, B12, are 2.4 mcg (micrograms) daily, one can cover it with 4 g of dry green nori. 

    The dried lavers contained lesser amounts of dietary iodine (~ 4-6 mg per 100 g of dry weight) relative to other seaweeds, suggesting that excessive intake of the dried lavers is unlikely to result in harmful intake of iodine.

    These results indicate that the nori are the best source of vitamin B12 among edible seaweeds, especially for strict vegetarians (vegans).

  • Bioavailable B12 in Algae and Pseudovitamin in Spirulina

    Substantial amounts of vitamin B12 were found in some edible algae (green and purple lavers, seaweed) and chlorella tablets. A study suggest that algal vitamin B12 is a bioavailable source for mammals.

    Pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid) predominated in the spirulina tablets, which are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially for vegetarians. 

  • Active Cobalamin B12 in Nori

    A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori, Porphyra yezoensis) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians.

    The amount of total vitamin B12 in the dried purple laver was estimated to be 55 -59 mcg / 100 g dry weight. The purple laver contained 5 types of biologically active vitamin B12 compounds (cyano-, hydroxo-, sulfito-, adenosyl- and methylcobalamin), in which the vitamin B12 coenzymes (adenosyl- and methylcobalamin) comprised about 60 % of the total vitamin B12: 

    • cyanocobalamin
    • hydroxocobalamin 
    • sulfitocobalamin 
    • adenosylcobalamin 
    • methylcobalamin 

    Dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

     

  • Cobalamin Bioavailability and Inactive Pseudovitamin B12

    Vitamin B12 bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of this vitamin per meal. Vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods.

    The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids.  This absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5 - 2.0 mcg of cobalamin (B12) per meal, 50% of dietary vitamin B12 is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function.

    Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B12, although other edible algae contained none or only traces of it. Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B12, which is inactive in humans.

    The bioavailability of vitamin B12 in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively, in eggs it seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%).

  • Vitamin A in Fruits, Vegetables and Seaweed

    Estimated mean requirement and safe level of intake for vitamin A, in Retinol Equivalents (RE) (1 RE = 1 mcg. of retinolor 6 mcg. of beta-carotene):

    • Adolescents, 10–18 years: 330–400 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Adult females, 19–65 years: 270 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 500 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Adult females, 65+ years: 300 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Males: 300 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)

    Food sources, examples (RE per 100 grams).

    Fresh fruits and raw and cooked fruit vegetables:

    • Mango - 523
    • Apricots - 260 (dry - 730)
    • Cantaloup 322
    • Squash, cooked 714
    • Red pepper, raw - 580

    Root (tubers) and green vegetables, flowers:

    • Carrots, raw - 2574
    • Sweet potato, cooked - 2180
    • Dandelion, raw - 1400
    • Spinach, raw - 674

    Seaweed:

    • Spirulina - 28333
    • Nori - 4895
  • Indicator of Vitamin A Deficiency Night Blindness

    The most frequently occurring clinical indicator ofvitamin A deficiency is night-blindness, which is the earliest manifestation of xerophthalmia. 

    In its mild form it is generally noticeable after stress from a bright light that bleaches the rhodopsin (visual purple) found in the retina. Vitamin A deficiency prolongs the time to regenerate rhodopsin, and thus delays adaptation time in dark environments.

    Night-blind young children tend to stumble when going from bright to dimly-lit areas and they, as well as night-blind mothers, tend to remain inactive at dusk and at night.

  • Vitamin A from Common Plant Sources and Rare Fruits

    Provitamin A carotenoids are found in green leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach, amaranth, and young leaves from various sources), yellow vegetables (e.g. pumpkins, squash, and carrots), and yellow and orange non-citrus fruits (e.g. mangoes, apricots, and papayas).

    Red palm oil produced in several countries worldwide is especially rich in provitamin A.

    Some other indigenous plants also may be unusually rich sources of provitamin A: 

    • palm fruit known in Brazil as burití, found in areas along the Amazon River (as well as elsewhere in Latin America), 
    • fruit known as gac in Viet Nam (used to colour rice). 
  • All Known Essential Vitamins

    Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins:

    • Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, 4 carotenoids)
    • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
    • Vitamin D (D3 - Cholecalciferol, D2 - Ergocalciferol)
    • Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)
    • Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
    • Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
    • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
    • Vitamin B3 (niacin)
    • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
    • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
    • Vitamin B7 (biotin)
    • Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
    • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)

    Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue: vitamins A, D, E, K

    Water-soluble vitamins - the body must use almost all water-soluble vitamins right away - vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and C.
    Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.

Leonardo da Vinci

I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they now look upon the murder of men.

Exercise

Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid, help improve mental health, maintain steady digestion, regulate fertility health.

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