All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena
A vitamin is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts but cannot synthesize the compound in sufficient quantities, and it must be obtained through the diet. Term "vitamin" is conditional upon the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (one form of vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animal organisms. Supplementation is important for the treatment of certain health problems, but there is little evidence of nutritional benefit when used by healthy people.
13 Vitamins are universally recognized at present: A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C, D, E, K.
Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body.
Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin.
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Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.
Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ):
- potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells;
- chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids;
- sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
- calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
- phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life;
- choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
- magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;
Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day:
- iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
- zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
- manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
- fluorine, F, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
- copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
- iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
- selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
- chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.