All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Vegetables

Vegetables is a broad term for parts of plants used as food - leaves, stems, roots, etc. The term vegetable is largely defined through culinary and cultural tradition, it usually excludes other plant foods such as fruits, nuts, and cereal grains, but includes seeds such as pulses.

  • Fruits and Vegetables May Protect Against Cancers

    In 1991, approximately 200 studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary are reviewed.

    A statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies. For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one‐fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors.

    For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances. Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant. Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies). For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis.

    It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.

  • Young People Feel Better Being Giveg Fresh Fruits

    A new study tested the psychological benefits of a two-week clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in 171 young adults (aged 18–25).

    Participants were randomly assigned into

    1. a diet-as-usual control condition,
    2. an ecological momentary intervention (EMI) condition involving text message reminders to increase their consumption plus a voucher to purchase fruits and vegetables,
    3. or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh fruits and vegetables to consume on top of their normal diet.

    Only participants in the last group (FVI) condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood.

    Giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time.

  • To Chef AJ about Calories in Non-Starchy Vegetables

    Negative-Calorie Fruits? No!

    In a presentation published on youtube, Chef AJ, who is certified in "Plant-Based Nutrition" from Cornell University,  describes the concept of calorie density, promoting weight loss. She claims that you can eat as many of non-sweet fruit and other low in starch vegetables you want, because: 

    "...their mostly waner, and fiber and nutrients, you know, you actually spend more calories, chewing non-starchy vegetables and digesting them than in the calories."

    My response: 

    Why every lecture like this must contain some nonsense? One hour chewing burns only ~10 food calories!

    There is no scientific evidence to show that any vegetables or fruits have a zero or negative caloric impact

    Celery has a thermic effect - "the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage" - of ~ 8%, much less than the 100% or more required for a food to have "negative calories". A large piece of celery provides almost 10 calories, but the body expends less than one calorie processing it.

    Proteins require the most energy to digest but their a thermic effect is 20%–30% only. A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    Chef AJ replied through her profile Wight Loss Wednesday:

    After I provided a link to this article with explanation to a viewer who replied to me with ""chewing and digesting".. digestion does not come for free," Chef AJ responded to my comment as well. First she said: 

    I was talking about BMR.

    Then she shared this link:

    http://lethow.com/health/negative-calorie-foods/

    In this article they just repeat the false information: 

    Consuming Negative calorie foods will burn more calories in chewing and digestion process  as compared to the calories they provide for the body. Eating these foods will create a calorie-deficit in the body, ultimately helps in weight loss.

    Towards the end they admit that:

    Our body uses around 10-15% of calories of the food we eat, in order to digest them. Our body also needs energy to break down the food  compound and absorb carbohydrates, proteins, minerals fats, and other nutrients. Our body generates energy from the food we intake.

    But they also imply that much more energy is burned by absorption of food. After mechanical and chemical digestion, which require most energy to break the pieces and molecules of food down, they assume or try to make you believe that absorption through the small intestine into the blood would take more than 90% of the calories of these foods for the total to be negative! There is no known scientific foundation for such assumptions. It even goes against common sense to think that the mere absorption of broken down nutrients would require ~10 times more energy than actual breaking down, or to imagine that we could survive with such inefficient bodies. Even if this were true, nutrients from other foods would require similar amounts of energy to be absorbed. 

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure, usually per day or hour. The measurement requires a strict set of criteria to be met, which include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, and in the post-absorptive state (after the food is digested). I do not know what exactly Chef AJ was pointing towards here. 

    They also list most non-starchy vegetables and fruits as calorie-negative! How irresponsible. The site, which calls itself "the ultimate guide," does not list any links to their sources, of course. They don't even have about pare or sign their articles. This site looks like an advertisement project, with the content created entirely by paid-per-word copywriters.

    As a fruitarian whose energy comes primarily from those fruits, I would be dead not only by now, but after any couple of month period in the last 20+ years. 

    These are the fruits and vegetables they list:

    Fruits Vegetables Spices 

    Apples

    Apricots

    Blackberries

    Cantaloupes

    Cranberries

    Grapefruit

    Guava

    Lemons

    Oranges

    Papayas

    Peaches

    Pineapples

    Plums

    Prunes

    Raspberries

    Strawberries

    Tangerines

    Tomatoes

    Watermelon

    Asparagus

    Aubergine

    Beets

    Broccoli

    Cabbage

    Carrots

    Cauliflower

    Celery

    Chicory

    Cress

    Cucumbers

    Dandelion

    Endive

    Fennel

    Green beans

    Lettuce

    Onions

    Radishes

    Spinach

    Turnip

    Zucchini  

    Anise

    Cayenne

    Chili peppers

    Cinnamon

    Cloves

    Coriander/Cilantro

    Cumin

    Dill

    Fennel seeds

    Flax seeds

    Garden cress

    Garlic

    Ginger

    Parsley

    Mustard seeds

    Watercress

    Please, don't believe just anyone on the internet, always check the information you rely upon. 

  • Fruits and Vegetables against Specific Cancer Types

    Statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary.

    For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one-fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors:

    • For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances.
    • Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant.
    • Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies).
    • For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis.

    It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.

  • Fruits and Vegetables for Cancer Prevention

    Diets rich in fruit and vegetables have been recommended for preventing cancer. 

    A significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables.

    Breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit. The risk reduction is significant for cancers of thelung andbladder and only forfruit.

    Bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables. 

  • Fruits Reduce Risk of Lung and Bladder Cancers

    Case-control studies overall support a significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables.

    Breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit.

    Bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables.

    The overall relative risk estimates from cohort studies suggest a protective effect of both fruit and vegetables for most cancer sites considered, but the risk reduction is significant only for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit.

  • Fructose, Glucose, Sucrose - Sugars in Plant Foods

    • Fructose and glucose are simple sugars, monosaccharides, with the general formula C6H12O6
      • Fructose, or fruit sugar, occurs naturally in fruits, some root vegetables, cane sugar and honey and is the sweetest of the sugars. 
      • Glucose, dextrose or grape sugar, occurs naturally in fruits and plant juices and is the primary product of photosynthesis. Most ingested carbohydrates are converted into glucose during digestion and it is the form of sugar that is transported around the bodies of animals in the bloodstream. 
    • Sucrose is a compound sugar, disaccharide, with the general formula C12H22O11
      Sucrose is found in the stems of sugarcane and roots of sugar beet. It also occurs naturally alongside fructose and glucose in other plants, in particular fruits and some roots (carrots). A molecule of sucrose is formed by the combination of a molecule of glucose with a molecule of fructose, and it is split into these parts during digestion.

    The different proportions of sugars found in plant foods determines their sweetness

  • Vitamin C Recommendation

    Based on available biochemical, clinical and epidemiological studies, the current US recommended daily allowance (RDA) for ascorbic acid ranges between 75 - 120 mg per dayto achieve cellular saturation and optimum risk reduction of heart diseases, stroke and cancer in healthy adults

    • Males - 90 mg a day,
    • Females - 75 mg a day,
    • Smokers- +35 mg a day (35 mg/day more)

    Freshfruits,vegetables and also synthetic tablets supplement the ascorbic acid requirement of the body. However, stress, smoking, infections and burns deplete the ascorbic acid reserves in the body and demands higher doses of ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Ascorbic acid and its derivatives are widely used as preservatives in food industry.

  • Satisfying Fruitarian Food Days

    Here are two examples of two random satisfying days of vegan fruitarian food for one female and one male persons.

    How is your "perfect" day of food looks like? 

    Yesterday was one of mine (Fruitarian Lena):

    • two glasses of freshly made organic orange juice,
    • a great smoothie with strawberries, purple grapes, bananas and oranges,
    • ~50 g of organic raw zucchini chips (with sesame and sunflower seeds),
    • a few dehydrated tomatoes,
    • tried 4-5 pea sprouts for the first time,
    • a big bowl of organic blueberries and blackberries,
    • a pound pack (1/2 kg) of very ripe dark red organic strawberries!
  • Brain Protectors

    Dr. Neal Barnard's "brain protectors" against Alzheimer's: almonds, apricots, beans, chickpeas, blueberries, grapes, leaves and sweet potatoes.

    Avoid saturated and trans fats, excess iron, copper and aluminum.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

They are called into existence by human artifice that they may drag out a short and miserable existence of slavery and disease, that their bodies may be mutilated, their social feelings outraged. It were much better that a sentient being should never have existed, than that it should have existed only to endure unmitigated misery.

Estimated Average Requirement EAR

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half  - 50% - of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. 

Because the needs of the other half of the population will not be met by this amount, the EAR is increased by about 20% to arrive at the RDA.

Before setting the EAR, a specific criterion of adequacy is selected, based on a careful review of the literature. When selecting the criterion, reduction of disease risk is considered along with many other health parameters. 

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