All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

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Society

Groups of people involved in social interaction, large social groups sharing the same geographical or social territory, often with similar cultural preferences - nations, communities, humanity.

  • B12 Oral Supplements and Cognitive Function

    Vitamin B-12 status did not change significantly after treatment in the placebo group with daily supplementation with high doses of oral vitamin B-12 alone or in combination with folic acid.

    Oral vitamin B-12 supplementation corrected mild vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    Vitamin B-12 + folic acid supplementation increased red blood cell folate concentrations and decreased total homocysteine concentrations by 36%.

    Improvement in memory function was greater in the placebo group than in the group who received vitamin B-12 alone. Neither supplementation with vitamin B-12 alone nor that in combination with folic acid was accompanied by any improvement in other cognitive domains.

  • Research Needed for B12 and Neurodegenerative Disease

    Having established the association of vitamin B12 insufficiency with neurodegenerative disease, the challenge is to discern the direction, if any, of causation.

    Most neurological impairments present a slow, progressive course (Josephs et al., 2009) and vitamin B12 levels may take a number of years to deplete (Herbert, 1988). Studies investigating causation would need to continue over an extended period of time.

    Low serum vitamin B12 levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease; however, it is equally plausible that neurological impairment may lead to poor nutrition and hence to inadequate dietary intake. Also, any association may simply be coincident or the factors predisposing patients for neurodegenerative disease may simply also expose the patient to a higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency, for example, poor nutrition. Further intervention studies in large samples followed over an extended period of time are required. This will allow for further investigation of the role, if any, of vitamin B12 in the onset or progression of neurodegenerative disease, as well as the latent period of effect of vitamin B12 insufficiency before cognitive deficits are evident.

  • Lotus-Eaters Lotophagi

    Lotus Tree Fruits

    Lotus-eaters (lotophagi or lotophaguses, lotophages) were fruitarians, whose primary foods were fruits and flowers of a lotus tree. 

    Herodotus, in the 5th century BCE, was sure that the lotus-eaters still existed in his day, in coastal Libya:

    A promontory jutting out into the sea from the country of the Gindanes is inhabited by the lotus-eaters, who live entirely on the fruit of the lotus-tree. The lotus fruit is about the size of the lentisk berry and in sweetness resembles the date. The lotus-eaters even succeed in obtaining from it a sort of wine.

    Polybius identifies the land of the lotus-eaters as the island of Djerba (ancient Meninx), off the coast of Tunisia. Later this identification is supported by Strabo.

    According to Greek mythology, lotophagi lived on an island dominated by lotus plants, and its flowers of fruits were narcotic, causing the people to sleep in peaceful apathy.

  • Vegetarianism

    Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of voluntary non-consumption of the flesh of any animal, including sea animals.

    The known history of vegetarianism begins civilizations of ancient India, Egypt, and Greece. Religious groups in Egypt (~ 3,200 BCE - Before Current Era) practiced abstinence from flesh and from wearing animal-derived clothing. The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people concern the India and Greece civilizations. In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence toward animals (Ahimsain India), and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. In the ancient Vedic period vegetarianism was encouraged, but eating some kinds of meat was allowed by law. 

  • Humans and Biosphere

    Almost everywhere we went, humankind erased a world of wonders, changing the way the biosphere functions. For instance, modern humans arrived in Europe and Australia at about the same time – between 40 and 50,000 years ago – with similar consequences.

    In Europe, where animals had learned to fear previous versions of the bipedal ape, the extinctions happened slowly. Within some 10 or 15,000 years, the continent had lost its straight-tusked elephants, forest rhinos, hippos, hyenas and monstrous scimitar cats.

    In Australia, where no hominim had set foot before modern humans arrived, the collapse was almost instant. The rhinoceros-sized wombat, the ten-foot kangaroo, the marsupial lion, the monitor lizard larger than a Nile crocodile, the giant marsupial tapir, the horned tortoise as big as a car – all went, in ecological terms, overnight.

  • Humans Share Genes with Plants and Animals

    Humans share ~ 24% of genes with grapes, ~ 85% - with cows.

    All animals, plants, and fungi share an ancestor that lived about 1.6 billion years ago. Every lineage that descended from that progenitor retains parts of its original genome, embodying one of evolution’s key principles: If it’s not broke, don’t fix it

  • 70 Percent Antibiotics in US are for Farm Animals

    70% Of all antibiotics sold in the US are used for farm animals. Sales of antibiotics for agriculture climbed 16% in 3 years between 2009 and 2012.

  • Fruitarian Community in California 1896

    A newspaper article about forming of a fruitarian community in California was published in Medford Mail (Medford, Jackson County, Oregon) on Friday, October 16, 1896. 

    1896 Fruitarian Community (Newspaper Article)
    1896 Fruitarian Community (Newspaper Article)

    A colony of fruitarians is being formed in Santa Barbara county by W. S. Manning, who subsists solely on uncooked fruit and nuts. They will be located near Los Olivos. 

    Los Olivos is a census-designated place in the Santa Ynez Valley of Santa Barbara County, California. In 1885 Alden March Boyd planted five thousand olive trees there, and called it Rancho De Los Olivos. The 1880s were a boom time for California.
    (Etling, William (2005). Sideways in Neverland: Life in the Santa Ynez Valley. iUniverse.)

    The image was found by Anne Osborne.

  • Nuts Fight Cancer

    Walnuts, pecans, and even peanuts - eat them at least sometimes to reduce your risk of getting cancer. 

    1 Walnut has the antioxidant equivalent to vitamin C in 4 oranges. Watch the video by physician Dr. Michael Greger, M.D.

  • Fruits and Vegetables Can Save Lives and Money

    If Americans ate just one more serving of fruits or vegetables per day, this would save more than 30,000 lives and $5 billion in medical costs each year.

    If Americans were to follow current USDA recommendations for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, those numbers would go up to more than 127,000 lives and $17 billion saved.

    The increased longevity that would result if Americans ate the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables is worth over $11 trillion.

Franz Kafka

Now I can look at you in peace; I don't eat you any more.

Viruses

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

There are millions types of viruses, ~ 5,000 virus species have been described in detail. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear. 

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, virions, which consist of the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, a protein coat, and in some cases an outer coat of lipids. Virion is about one one-hundredth the size of a bacterium.

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