940 days ago 0 Comments From: LENA Languages: Science Tags: amino acids carbohydrate exercise immune leucocytes nutrition protein
nature.com — Modification of immune responses to exercise by carbohydrate, glutamine and anti-oxidant supplements Immunosuppression in athletes involved in heavy training is undoubtedly multifactorial in origin. Training and competitive surroundings may increase the athlete's exposure to pathogens and provide optimal conditions for pathogen transmission. Heavy prolonged exertion is associated with numerous hormonal and biochemical changes, many of which potentially have detrimental effects on immune function. Furthermore, improper nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. The poor nutritional status of some athletes may predispose them to immunosuppression. For example, dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. Although it is impossible to counter the effects of all of the factors that contribute to exercise-induced immunosuppression, it has been shown to be possible to minimize the effects of many factors. Athletes can help themselves by eating a well-balanced diet that includes adequate protein and carbohydrate, sufficient to meet their energy requirements. This will ensure a more than adequate intake of trace elements without the need for special supplements. Consuming carbohydrate (but not glutamine or other amino acids) during exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones, such as cortisol, and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immunosuppression, at least for non-fatiguing bouts of exercise. Evidence that high doses of anti-oxidant vitamins can prevent exercise-induced immunosuppression is also lacking.
fruitarian.net — Fruit contains vital elements to make our body work and there is a great energy in their juices. These juices do not burden our system, but pass easily through it, giving the body a more efficient energy system. Imagine a world where people ate only fruits. This will result in a healthy abundance of fruit trees, giving nutritious food to be enjoyed by those who wish to live an energetic and healthy life. The world will transform in beauty to the way it used to look earlier with an increase in tree populations cleaning the air and offering hiding environment for animals of the nature, many of them are already endangered. When we start eating only fruits and nuts the difference is felt very quickly. A sensation of integrity and a wave of energy spreads through the body. Another benefit to our health could be a psychological one, if we think we are not causing the death of animals to survive. There is no need to make secret of the fact that when we consume meat, we are triggering a chain reaction together with all the other consumers, which will finally cause the death of a poor animal living somewhere out there, which we have never seen the face.The increase of our human races in the world and our wrong eating habits are the main reasons for the destruction of the forests and the right environmental conditions in which we live. The excessive grazing of the animals and raising of the crops do not permit the creation of a suitable flora which is necessary for the growth of the trees. This also means erosion, which takes away the fertile soil and poor peasants moving to the towns, which grow continually, creating more environmental and social problems. As for our bodies they are not designed to live sedentary lives in those towns. Degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease or osteoporosis strike us and we suffer.Fruitarian lifestyle could be a plan to stop the global warming and save the world as it will result the increase of the fruit trees everywhere in the world. It simply consists of collecting fruits from the trees, eating them and scattering their seeds around. By doing this, we will spread these fruit trees everywhere and will need no instruments to do that. Our bare hands are designed to collect and eat fruits. So there will be no need to harm the nature by processing, cooking and washing dishes.
discovermagazine.com — Thus passed the bulk of three years. Milton found that most of the time the howlers ate leaves and fruit in almost equal measure, but when seasonal fruits were in short supply, the animals filled up on leaves. Howler monkeys were finicky, though. They ate only tender, young leaves, and only the tips at that....They appear to use a collective information pool to locate their foods. They’ll just set off in a straight line right to it....The howlers conducted these expeditions over 75 acres, searching out as many as 25 species of plants daily. Some, like the Ceiba pentandra tree, were edible for only a few hours a year; others were available more often. Unerringly, the howlers tracked them down. The ranges of various howler troops overlapped, so Milton would occasionally come upon a tree filled with monkeys, with other groups in adjoining trees politely waiting their turn at the table. All of which suggested that the animals had an extraordinary collective memory, an unfailing sense of direction, refined social manners, and a built-in barometer of what foods were good for them.This aggregate intelligence allows infant howlers to mature quickly. After 12 to 14 months, howler mothers don’t want to see their babies again, Milton says. The babies soon declare independence and rely on the group for support.Still, despite the obvious group intelligence, the monkeys individually didn’t seem particularly smart to Milton. They were relatively dull and placid - and unobservant. I ate lunch for months in full view of dozens of howlers, and not one ever seemed to realize that I was eating, much less that what I was eating might be something they would enjoy, too, she says. You could make noises and slurp and carry on - whatever cognitive processes are required to identify the act of eating, they don’t seem to use them.But spider monkeys did. I saw them all the time when I was studying howlers, says Milton. They’d go roaring by like greased lightning. Spider monkeys are the same size as howlers, and the two animals share parts of each other’s ranges on Barro Colorado. But there the similarities end. Whereas howlers travel through the canopy on all fours, spiders swing along like Tarzan. Unlike the placid howlers, spiders are playful and mischievous. They’re terrible teases, says Milton. And they’re mean little devils. They remind me of people, she confides with a laugh. Although not specifically any of my close friends.Spider monkeys had no trouble recognizing Milton’s lunch. ‘Food!’ they’d shout. ‘Let’s see if we can get it!’ They’d swing down toward you; they’d threaten you. They know what a banana is. They have a keen idea of what a peanut butter sandwich is. You simply cannot eat in front of them.Intrigued, Milton decided she’d add spider monkeys to her observations. She thought it might be interesting to compare how the two species evolved from a common ancestor. But while the comparatively sedate howlers were a researcher’s dream, dealing with the spider monkeys was something else again. They were too fast for me, says Milton. So I hired a young man to work with me. He would run through the forest as fast as he could, following the monkeys, and I would come behind. We communicated by calls. ‘Whooooo!’ Like that. The sound really carries through the forest.When the barnstorming spider monkeys found food, they’d finally screech to a stop, allowing Milton to catch up. They’d just stuff themselves. Then they’d lie around and take naps.Unlike the howlers, Milton discovered, the spider monkeys almost exclusively ate fruit, which often made up 90 percent of their diet. Even when fruit was out of season or in short supply, it constituted over half their food. But ripe fruit is even harder to find than tender leaves. To get enough, the 18 spider monkeys on the island would resort to splitting up and trying their luck on their own. During most of the year the distribution patterns of their foods are such that if they went around in a big group, there wouldn’t be enough at any one site to feed everyone, says Milton. So they’d spend almost the whole day foraging in small subunits or by themselves. Then around twilight they’d begin to call and coalesce, and then they’d spend the night together.As a result of this extended exploring, the spiders’ territory was huge, some 750 acres, ten times that of the howler monkeys. And that’s a conservative estimate, says Milton. Two thousand acres might be right. If the howlers displayed impressive feats of memory and direction by finding young leaves, the spider monkeys’ long-distance forays after fruit were astounding. Within an enormous area they had to remember at least 100 species of fruit and where to find thousands of fruit-bearing trees. They had to remember when each fruit was ripe, how best to approach the site, and how best to return home. If a howler forgot a food source or a travel route, the others were there to take up the slack. The spiders, though, had to fend for themselves.And they had to know how to stay in touch. Howler monkeys tended to be quiet, communicating through subtle clucks and rattles in the throat, except at daybreak, when their eerie howls declared. ...Spider monkeys, on the other hand, were conspicuously noisy. They’d yelp and cry, whinnying like horses, barking like dogs - sometimes for hours at a time. ...And in contrast to the howlers’ community messages, spider monkeys believed in individual expression. Spider monkey vocalizations are generally individualistic. ...All that variety and independence requires lots of training. As a result, infant spider monkeys mature slowly. They are nursed and carried by their mothers for two years, and they continue to associate almost exclusively with her until they’re about three or three and a half years old. ...Why were the two monkeys so dissimilar? Milton wondered about the differences in their diets. Howler monkeys ate mainly leaves, sometimes exclusively leaves, a low-quality source of nutrition. Leaves are plentiful and relatively high in protein, but they’re low in energy-rich carbohydrates. They also consist of some 60 percent indigestible fiber and sometimes contain toxic chemicals. How in the world did howlers get enough energy from this unpromising diet? And why did they stick to it even during seasons when there was plenty of ripe fruit in the forest?Fruits are loaded with easily digested carbohydrates and are relatively low in fiber - they’re high-quality, nutritious food. They mean instant energy. On the other hand, fruits provide little protein. So, Milton wondered, how did spider monkeys get enough protein? And why, when fruits were scarce, didn’t they fill up on leaves, as howlers did? Why did they go to such extremes to find fruits?Milton began finding some answers to these questions in 1977, when she returned to Barro Colorado after completing her doctoral thesis. She soon conducted an experiment measuring how long it took the monkeys to process their food. I needed to look at internal features of the monkeys, she says. I thought that perhaps the structure of their guts or efficiency of their digestion might be influencing their behavior.She trapped howler and spider monkeys, confined them in pens, and fed them food in which she had concealed tiny plastic markers. I used a type of thin plastic material that I cut with very fine manicure scissors into little colored plastic worms, she explains. When the monkeys excreted the remains of their food, out came the markers. Milton could therefore measure the time it took any one meal to pass through a monkey’s digestive tract. The results were dramatic: howlers took 20 hours to digest their food, five times as long as spiders. ...When Milton came upon monkeys that had died in the forest, she took them back to the research station, dissected them, and measured their gastrointestinal tracts. She then confirmed her figures against published material on differential gut measurements in various primates. She found that the colons of howlers were considerably wider and longer than those of spider monkeys. Food had to travel much farther and remained much longer in howler guts, and the monkeys had room for much more bulk. As a result, bacteria had a chance to ferment masses of fibrous leaves in the monkeys’ colons, producing energy-rich fatty acids. Milton eventually found that howlers receive more than 30 percent of their daily energy from such fatty acids.... Spiders were far less efficient at extracting energy from the fiber in their diet - but they didn’t have to be efficient. They ate easily digestible fruits. By moving a steady stream of fruit through their gastrointestinal tracts every day, they obtained all the carbohydrates they needed and some of the protein. The rest came from supplements of young, tender leaves.It was a striking example of evolutionary adaptation. Each monkey’s physiology fit its particular diet. Spider monkeys couldn’t get away with eating a howler diet of mostly leaves. With their smallish guts, they’d never keep enough bulk around long enough for fermentation to provide energy. And howlers wouldn’t manage for long if they used the spider monkey tactic of eating fruit - their slow digestive tracts couldn’t process nearly enough of it. Besides, it took smarts to track down sufficient fruit, and Milton thought it unlikely that the howlers were up to the job. Nor was the howler diet of leaves up to the job of fueling the amount of brainpower necessary. The brain, a big, hungry organ, requires a disproportionate amount of energy, and leaves just don’t provide enough....The more I thought about it, the more it seemed to make sense that if you have a high-energy diet and widely distributed foods, you’re going to need a certain amount of ability to locate those foods. ...A scientist named Daniel Quirling had published extensive statistics about the sizes of primate brains. Spider monkey brains, he had determined, weigh twice those of howlers, 107 grams compared with 50.4. No wonder spiders are smarter....Compared with the howlers, spider monkeys were brighter and more lively. They matured more slowly and had more to learn; they made more ruckus, with a greater variety of vocalizations; they ate widely dispersed, high-energy foods that were harder to find--and their brains were twice as large. Why?As far as Milton was concerned, diet was the key to these discrepancies. Eating fruits fueled the evolution of the spider monkeys’ large brains. Says Milton, It would have been a feedback process in which some slight change in the monkeys’ foraging behavior conferred a benefit, which in turn permitted a modest improvement in the quality of their diet, which led to an excess of energy. Over generations, the monkeys that spent the energy on making their brain slightly bigger and more complex had an evolutionary advantage. Their improved brain allowed for more helpful changes in their behavior, and so on.Milton realized that if such a scenario was correct, similar differences in brain size should show up in other primates with similar differences in diet - monkeys and apes that eat fruits should have larger brains than their leaf-eating counterparts. Sure enough, when Milton checked the literature, she found the pattern held true. For example, of the three great apes, lively, quick chimpanzees, our closest animal relatives, have a bigger brain for their body size than do the slower, more placid gorillas and orangutans. Chimps take some 94 percent of their diet from plants, largely in the form of ripe fruits. Gorillas and orangutans eat 99 percent plant foods, but mainly lower-quality leaves, pith, even bark. Diet had to be the key to their disparate evolution.
1020 days ago 0 Comments From: LENA Languages: Science Nutrition Tags: intellect stress obesity diet calories
sciencedaily.com — Intellectual Work Found To Induce Excessive Calorie Intake The researchers had already shown that each session of intellectual work requires only three calories more than the rest period. However, despite the low energy cost of mental work, the students spontaneously consumed 203 more calories after summarizing a text and 253 more calories after the computer tests. This represents a 23.6% and 29.4 % increase, respectively, compared with the rest period.Blood samples taken before, during, and after each session revealed that intellectual work causes much bigger fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels than rest periods. "These fluctuations may be caused by the stress of intellectual work, or also reflect a biological adaptation during glucose combustion," hypothesized Jean-Philippe Chaput, the study's main author. The body could be reacting to these fluctuations by spurring food intake in order to restore its glucose balance, the only fuel used by the brain."Caloric overcompensation following intellectual work, combined with the fact that we are less physically active when doing intellectual tasks, could contribute to the obesity epidemic currently observed in industrialized countries," said Mr. Chaput.
5e.plantphys.net — A Companion to Plant Physiology, Fifth Edition by Lincoln Taiz and Eduardo Zeiger Topics 1. Plant Cells Topic 1.1, Model Organisms Topic 1.2, The Plant Kingdom Topic 1.3, Flower Structure and the Angiosperm Life Cycle Topic 1.4, Plant Tissue Systems: Dermal, Ground, and Vascular Topic 1.5, The Structures of Chloroplast Glycosylglycerides Topic 1.6, A Model for the Structure of Nuclear Pores Topic 1.7, The Proteins Involved in Nuclear Import and Export Topic 1.8, Protein Signals Used to Sort Proteins to their Destinations Topic 1.9, SNAREs, Rabs, and Coat Proteins Mediate Vesicle Formation, Fission, and Fusion Topic 1.10, ER Exit Sites (ERES) and Golgi Bodies Are Interconnected Topic 1.11, Specialized Vacuoles in Plant Cells Topic 1.12, Actin-Binding Proteins Regulate Microfilament Growth Topic 1.13, Kinesins Are Associated with Other Microtubules and Chromatin Topic 1.14, Chapter One References 2. Genome Organization and Gene Expression Topic 2.1, Recombination Mapping and Gene Cloning Topic 2.2, Transposon Tagging 3. Water and Plant Cells Topic 3.1, Calculating Capillary Rise Topic 3.2, Calculating Half-Times of Diffusion Topic 3.3, Alternative Conventions for Components of Water Potential Topic 3.4, Temperature and Water Potential Topic 3.5, Can Negative Turgor Pressures Exist in Living Cells? Topic 3.6, Measuring Water Potential Topic 3.7, The Matric Potential Topic 3.8, Wilting and Plasmolysis Topic 3.9, Understanding Hydraulic Conductivity Topic 3.10, Chapter Three References 4. Water Balance of Plants Topic 4.1, Irrigation Topic 4.2, Physical Properties of Soils Topic 4.3, Calculating Velocities of Water Movement in the Xylem and in Living Cells Topic 4.4, Leaf Transpiration and Water Vapor Gradients Topic 4.5, Chapter Four References 5. Mineral Nutrition Topic 5.1, Symptoms of Deficiency in Essential Minerals - Wade Berry, UCLA Topic 5.2, Observing Roots below Ground Topic 5.3, Chapter Five References 6. Solute Transport Topic 6.1, Relating the Membrane Potential to the Distribution of Several Ions across the Membrane: The Goldman Equation Topic 6.2, Patch Clamp Studies in Plant Cells Topic 6.3, Chemiosmosis in Action Topic 6.4, Kinetic Analysis of Multiple Transporter Systems Topic 6.5, ABC Transporters in Plants Topic 6.6, Transport Studies with Isolated Vacuoles and Membrane Vesicles Topic 6.7, Chapter Six References 7. Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions Topic 7.1, Principles of Spectrophotometry Topic 7.2, The Distribution of Chlorophylls and Other Photosynthetic Pigments Topic 7.3, Quantum Yield Topic 7.4, Antagonistic Effects of Light on Cytochrome Oxidation Topic 7.5, Structures of Two Bacterial Reaction Centers Topic 7.6, Midpoint Potentials and Redox Reactions Topic 7.7, Oxygen Evolution Topic 7.8, Photosystem I Topic 7.9, ATP Synthase Topic 7.10, Mode of Action of Some Herbicides Topic 7.11, Chlorophyll Biosynthesis Topic 7.12, Chapter Seven References 8. Photosynthesis: The Carbon Reactions Topic 8.1, CO2 Pumps Topic 8.2, How the Calvin–Benson Cycle Was Elucidated Topic 8.3, Rubisco: A Model Enzyme for Studying Structure and Function Topic 8.4, Energy Demands for Photosynthesis in Land Plants Topic 8.5, Rubisco Activase Topic 8.6, Thioredoxins Topic 8.7, Operation of the C2 Oxidative Photosynthetic Carbon Cycle Topic 8.8, Carbon Dioxide: Some Important Physicochemical Properties Topic 8.9, Three Variations of C4 Metabolism Topic 8.10, Single-Cell C4 Photosynthesis Topic 8.11, Photorespiration in CAM plants Topic 8.12, Glossary of Carbohydrate Biochemistry Topic 8.13, Starch Architecture Topic 8.14, Fructans Topic 8.15, Chloroplast Phosphate Translocators Topic 8.16, Chapter Eight References 9. Photosynthesis: Physiological and Ecological Considerations Topic 9.1, Working with Light Topic 9.2, Heat Dissipation from Leaves: The Bowen Ratio Topic 9.3, The Geographic Distributions of C3 and C4 Plants Topic 9.4, Calculating Important Parameters in Leaf Gas Exchange Topic 9.5, Prehistoric Changes in Atmospheric CO2 Topic 9.6, Projected Future Increases in Atmospheric CO2 Topic 9.7, Using Carbon Isotopes to Detect Adulteration in Foods Topic 9.8, Reconstruction of the Expansion of C4 Taxa Topic 9.9, Chapter Nine References 10. Translocation in the Phloem Topic 10.1, Sieve Elements as the Transport Cells between Sources and Sinks - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.2, An Additional Mechanism for Blocking Wounded Sieve Elements in the Legume Family - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.3, Sampling Phloem Sap - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.4, Nitrogen Transport in the Phloem - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.5, Monitoring Traffic on the Sugar Freeway: Sugar Transport Rates in the Phloem - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.6, Alternative Views of Pressure Gradient in Sieve Elements: Large or Small Gradients? - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.7, Experiments on Phloem Loading - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.8, Experiments on Phloem Unloading - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.9, Allocation in Source Leaves: The Balance between Starch and Sucrose Synthesis - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.10, Partitioning: The Role of Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Sinks Topic 10.11, Possible Mechanisms Linking Sink Demand and Photosynthetic Rate in Starch Storers - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati Topic 10.12, Proteins and RNAs: Signal Molecules in the Phloem Topic 10.13, Chapter Ten References - Susan Dunford, University of Cincinnati 11. Respiration and Lipid Metabolism Topic 11.1, Isolation of Mitochondria - Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark; Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden Topic 11.2, The Q-Cycle Explains How Complex III Pumps Protons across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane - Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden; Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark Topic 11.3, Multiple Energy Conservation Bypasses in Oxidative Phosphorylation of Plant Mitochondria - Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden; Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark Topic 11.4, FoF1-ATP Synthases: The World′s Smallest Rotary Motors - Lincoln Taiz, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA Topic 11.5, Transport Into and Out of Plant Mitochondria - Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden; Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark Topic 11.6, The Genetic System in Plant Mitochondria Has Several Special Features - Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden; Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark Topic 11.7, Does Respiration Reduce Crop Yields? - James N. Siedow, Duke University, North Carolina, USA; Ian M. Møller, Aarhus University, Denmark; Allan G. Rasmusson, Lund University, Sweden Topic 11.8, The Lipid Composition of Membranes Affects the Cell Biology and Physiology of Plants - John Browse, Washington State University Topic 11.9, Utilization of Oil Reserves in Cotyledons - John Browse, Washington State University Topic 11.10, Chapter 11 References 12. Assimilation of Mineral Nutrients Topic 12.1, Development of a Root Nodule Topic 12.2, Measurement of Nitrogen Fixation Topic 12.3, The Synthesis of Methionine Topic 12.4, Oxygenases Topic 12.5, Chapter Twelve References 13. Secondary Metabolites and Plant Defense Topic 13.1, Cutin, Waxes, and Suberin Topic 13.2, Structure of Various Triterpenes Topic 13.3, The Shikimic Acid Pathway Topic 13.4, Detailed Chemical Structure of a Portion of a Lignin Molecule Topic 13.5, Chapter Thirteen References 15. Cell Walls: Structure, Biogenesis, and Expansion Topic 15.1, Plant Cell Walls Play a Major Role in Carbon Flow through Ecosystems Topic 15.2, Terminology for Polysaccharide Chemistry Topic 15.3, Molecular Model for the Synthesis of Cellulose and Other Wall Polysaccharides That Consist of a Disaccharide Repeat Topic 15.4, Matrix Components of the Cell Wall Topic 15.5, The Mechanical Properties of Cell Walls: Studies With Nitella Topic 15.6, Wall Degradation and Plant Defense Topic 15.7, Structure of Biologically Active Oligosaccharins Topic 15.8, Glucanases and Other Hydrolytic Enzymes May Modify the Matrix Topic 15.9, Chapter Fifteen References 16. Growth and Development Topic 16.1, Embryonic Dormancy Topic 16.2, Rice Embryogenesis Topic 16.3, Polarity of Fucus Zygotes Topic 16.4, Azolla Root Development Topic 16.5, Class III HD-Zip Transcription Factors Promote Adaxial Development through a microRNA-Sensitive Mechanism Topic 16.6, During Senescence Photoactive Chlorophyllide Is Converted into a Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolite Topic 16.7, Chapter Sixteen References 17. Phytochrome and Light Control of Plant Development Topic 17.1, Mougeotia: A Chloroplast with a Twist Topic 17.2, Phytochrome and High-Irradiance Responses Topic 17.3, The Origins of Phytochrome as a Bacterial Two-Component Receptor Topic 17.4, Profiling Gene Expression in Plants Topic 17.5, Two-Hybrid Screens and Co-immunoprecipitation Topic 17.6, Phytochrome Effects on Ion Fluxes Topic 17.7, Microarray Analysis of Shade Avoidance Topic 17.8, Chapter Seventeen References 18. Blue-Light Responses: Morphogenesis and Stomatal Movements Topic 18.1, Blue-Light Sensing and Light Gradients Topic 18.2, Guard Cell Osmoregulation and a Blue Light-Activated Metabolic Switch Topic 18.3, The Coleoptile Chloroplast Topic 18.4, Phytochrome-Mediated Responses in Stomata Topic 18.5, Chapter Eighteen References 20. Gibberellins: Regulators of Plant Height and Seed Germination Topic 20.1, Structures of Some Important Gibberellins and Their Precursors, Derivatives, and Inhibitors of Gibberellin Biosynthesis - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas, USA Topic 20.2, Commercial Uses of Gibberellins - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.3, Gibberellin Biosynthesis - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.4, Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry of Gibberellins - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.5, Environmental Control of Gibberellin Biosynthesis - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.6, Auxin Can Regulate Gibberellin Biosynthesis - Jocelyn A. Ozga and Dennis M. Reinecke, Plant BioSystems Group, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 Topic 20.7, Negative Regulators of GA Response - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.8, Effects of GAs on Flowering - Valerie Sponsel, Biology Department, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX, USA Topic 20.9, DELLA Proteins as Integrators of Multiple Signals - Stephen G. Thomas, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, United Kingdom Topic 20.10, Chapter Twenty References 21. Cytokinins: Regulators of Cell Division Topic 21.1, Cultured Cells Can Acquire the Ability to Synthesize Cytokinins Topic 21.2, Structures of Some Naturally Occurring Cytokinins Topic 21.3, Various Methods Are Used to Detect and Identify Cytokinins Topic 21.4, The Biologically Active Form of Cytokinin Is the Free Base Topic 21.5, Cytokinins Are Also Present in Some tRNAs in Animal and Plant Cells Topic 21.6, The Structures of Opines Topic 21.7, The Ti Plasmid and Plant Genetic Engineering Topic 21.8, Phylogenetic Tree of IPT genes Topic 21.9, A Root-Derived Hormone, Strigolactone, Is Involved in the Suppression of Branching in Shoots Topic 21.10, Cytokinin Can Promote Light-Mediated Development Topic 21.11, Cytokinins Promote Cell Expansion and Greening in Cotyledons Topic 21.12, Cytokinins Interact with Elements of the Circadian Clock Topic 21.13, Chapter Twenty-One References 22. Ethylene: The Gaseous Hormone Topic 22.1, Ethylene in the Environment Arises Biotically and Abiotically Topic 22.2, Ethylene Readily Undergoes Oxidation Topic 22.3, Ethylene Can Be Measured by Gas Chromatography Topic 22.4, Cloning of the Gene That Encodes ACC Synthase Topic 22.5, Cloning of the Gene That Encodes ACC Oxidase Topic 22.6, Ethylene Binding to ETR1 and Seedling Response to Ethylene Topic 22.7, Conservation of Ethylene Signaling Components in Other Plant Species Topic 22.8, ACC Synthase Gene Expression and Biotechnology Topic 22.9, The hookless Mutation Alters the Pattern of Auxin Gene Expression Topic 22.10, Ethylene Inhibits the Formation of Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules in Legumes Topic 22.11, Ethylene Biosynthesis Can Be Blocked with Anti-Sense DNA Topic 22.12, Abscission and the Dawn of Agriculture Topic 22.13, Specific Inhibitors of Ethylene Biosynthesis Are Used Commercially to Preserve Cut Flowers Topic 22.14, Chapter Twenty-Two References 23. Abscisic Acid: A Seed Maturation and Stress-Response Hormone Topic 23.1, The Structure Of Lunularic Acid from Liverworts Topic 23.2, ABA May Be an Ancient Stress Signal Topic 23.3, Structural Requirements for Biological Activity of Abscisic Acid Topic 23.4, The Bioassay of ABA Topic 23.5, Evidence for Both Extracellular and Intracellular ABA Receptors Topic 23.6, The Existence of G Protein-Coupled ABA Receptors Is Still Unresolved Topic 23.7, The Yeast Two-Hybrid System Topic 23.8, Yellow Cameleon: A Noninvasive Tool for Measuring Intracellular Calcium Topic 23.9, Phosphatidic Acid May Stimulate Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Production Topic 23.10, The ABA Signal Transduction Pathway Includes Several Protein Kinases Topic 23.11, The ERA1 and ABH Genes Code for Negative Regulators of the The ABA Response Topic 23.12, Promoter Elements That Regulate ABA Induction of Gene Expression Topic 23.13, Regulatory Proteins Implicated in ABA-Stimulated Gene Transcription Topic 23.14, ABA Gene Expression Can Also Be Regulated by mRNA Processing and Stability Topic 23.15, ABA May Play a Role in Plant Pathogen Responses Topic 23.16, Proteins Required for Desiccation Tolerance Topic 23.17, The Types of Coat-Imposed Seed Dormancy Topic 23.18, Types of Seed Dormancy and the Roles of Environmental Factors Topic 23.19, The Longevity of Seeds Topic 23.20, Genetic Mapping Of Dormancy: Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Scoring of Vegetative Dormancy Combined with a Candidate Gene Approach Topic 23.21, ABA-Induced Senescence and Ethylene Topic 23.22, Chapter Twenty-Three References 25. The Control of Flowering Topic 25.1, Contrasting the Characteristics of Juvenile and Adult Phases of English Ivy (Hedera helix) and Maize (Zea mays) Topic 25.2, Regulation of Juvenility by the TEOPOD (TP) Genes in Maize Topic 25.3, Flowering of Juvenile Meristems Grafted to Adult Plants Topic 25.4, Characteristics of the Phase-Shifting Response in Circadian Rhythms Topic 25.5, Support for the Role of Blue-Light Regulation of Circadian Rhythms Topic 25.6, Genes That Control Flowering Time Topic 25.7, Regulation of Flowering in Canterbury Bells by Both Photoperiod and Vernalization Topic 25.8, The Self-Propagating Nature of the Floral Stimulus Topic 25.9, Examples of Floral Induction by Gibberellins in Plants with Different Environmental Requirements for Flowering Topic 25.10, The Effects of Two Different Gibberellins on Flowering (Spike Length) and Elongation (Stem Length) Topic 25.11, The Contrasting Effects of Phytochromes A and B on Flowering Topic 25.12, A Gene That Regulates the Floral Stimulus in Maize Topic 25.13, Chapter Twenty-Five References 26. Responses and Adaptations to Abiotic Stress Topic 26.1, Stomatal Conductance and Yields of Irrigated Crops Topic 26.2, Membrane Lipids and Low Temperatures Topic 26.3, Ice Formation in Higher-Plant Cells Topic 26.4, Water-Deficit-Regulated ABA Signaling and Stomatal Closure Topic 26.5, Genetic and Physiological Adaptations Required for Zinc Hyperaccumulation Topic 26.6, Cellular and Whole Plant Responses to Salinity Stress Topic 26.7, Signaling during Cold Acclimation Regulates Genes That Are Expressed in Response to Low Temperature and Enhances Freezing Tolerance Topic 26.8, Chapter Twenty-Six References
1082 days ago 0 Comments From: LENA Languages: Science Nutrition Tags: orangutans energy calories research
news.sciencemag.org — Who exerts less energy, a person lounging in an armchair or an orangutan swinging through the forest? Surprisingly, it's the ape. Researchers have found that, for their size, orangutans expend less energy than nearly every placental mammal measured. The discovery could help explain how animals have adapted to cope with lean times. When it comes to expending energy, not all animals are created equal.
progressreport.cancer.gov — Limited Fruit and Vegetable Consumption is a Cancer Risk People whose diets are rich in plant foods such as fruits and vegetables have a lower risk of getting cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, lung, and there is some suggested evidence for a lower risk of cancers of the colon, pancreas, and prostate. They are also less likely to get diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. A diet high in fruits and vegetables helps to reduce calorie intake and may help to control weight. To help prevent these cancers and other chronic diseases, experts recommend 4 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, depending on energy needs.
runningraw.com — What is the difference between Raw Food and Living Food? Although the definitions of raw vary, it is commonly held that for a food to be raw it must have not been heated over 118 degrees F. My personal belief is that foods begin to break down and lose nutritive value when subjected to temperatures over 100 degrees F. A living food may or may not be a raw food (it may have been cooked at one point), but it has been re-enlivened or populated with living cultures. Examples would be kombucha tea, miso, tempeh, kim chee and krauts, etc. What is a detox? Detox, short for detoxification, is the elimination of toxic substances from the body. What can I expect during my detox? The detox is a highly individual process. Everyone experiences it differently. For some there are no detox symptoms at all. My detox lasted 4 months. I was light-headed, nauseous, weak, tired, headaches, fever-like symptoms. It was not fun, but I came through the other side with a new body. Where do I get my protein? This is probably the most common question i get, and the answer is that I'm not really that concerned with protein intake. Yes, I do consume some protein in the few hemp seeds and nuts that I eat. The dark leafy greens and broccoli that I consume daily also contain protein, but all in all, I really don't consume that much protein. The human body breaks protein down into amino acids, so I cut out the middle man and eat foods that are rich in amino acids - ALL uncooked fruits and vegetables. How do I get enough calories? Actually, I consume much fewer calories than the average American... I'll be doing a caloric breakdown of a single day shortly... my guess is that my consumption falls short of 2000 calories. Raw food is a much more efficient fuel, whereas many of the calories consumed on a SAD diet are burned trying to break down the very food that's providing the energy, and to clean up the damage brought about by an unhealthy diet. Running Raw Diet How long have I been eating raw? I took the plunge into fantastic health on November 3rd of 2004. What do I eat on a daily basis? I don't really have a strict plan or routine when it comes to my daily consumption. I eat what feels good. On most mornings i'll start with a piece of fresh fruit or two (apple, bananas, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, peach, strawberries, etc...), then I'll have a Larabar sometime mid morning. Before my workouts I usually consume a banana and some young coconut water. After my workouts I'll have another piece or two of fresh fruit - within 15 minutes of completing my workout!!! Then when i get home I'll make a smoothie with fruit and greens (kale, lettuce, collard), a few dates and some dulse (for electrolytes). Mid evening I'll chomp on another Larabar, and then I'll make a massive salad at around 7pm... it's got tons of different greens, broccoli, red peppers, radishes, avocado, celery, snap peas, mushrooms and whatever else i can find to throw in there... every day is different... but this is somewhat normal for me, and gives me all the energy I need and more. Did I go vegetarian or vegan before going raw? I was vegan for 6 years before I went raw. The last six months before I went raw I was eating a macrobiotic vegan diet. What is my pre-race regimen? As for a pre-race dinner... I eat no later than 6pm the night of a race... and that meal is almost entirely fruit - bananas, apples, mangoes, kiwis, strawberries... just no melon (they don't play well with other fruit). I might also have a little romaine lettuce. Make sure you are very hydrated the day before the race. The morning of the race, I wake up 3 hours before my start time and have a large all fruit breakfast. Half an hour later I go for a 3 to 5 minute run to get my metabolism going (all the top runners do this). Then I relax and make sure I'm getting lots of fluids... I'll drink at least 32 ounces of water or coconut water before the race... I stop drinking 30 minutes before the start. What supplements do I take? Actually, I don't take any. The point of the Running Raw Project is to prove that one can accomplish incredible feats of physical health and performance using inexpensive, easy to find, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. What superfoods do I take? My belief is that a raw lifestyle should be as sustainable and economically feasible as possible. Therefore, I keep to the foods that are commonplace in any supermarket anywhere in the country, and cost very little to purchase. The miracle of the raw diet is not in the foods you are consuming, it's in the foods you are NOT consuming. Your body is the miracle, you don't need expensive "superfoods" to have a super body. The Running Raw Project How did the project begin? The Running Raw Project came into existence on December 25th of 2005. I was at a Christmas party at my friend's house in Venice, CA. The topic of my recent entrance into the world of running had come up. As I described the changes that were happening to my body and the abnormal feats of endurance that I was capable of, someone said - "you should film this". That hadn't occured to me before. Had anyone ever done that? Was anyone documenting the physical changes that occur when one goes raw? Were people testing this diet and it's relation to physical performance? I looked around online and found not one reference to a Raw diet and athletic performance. This blew my mind. What I was experiencing was off the charts, was I the only one experiencing these physical improvements on this diet? I had to find out. Thus the journey began. What is the status of the documentary film? As of September of 2008, the documentary is on hold. Other aspects of the project have taken precedence. My hopes are that a new team will be assembled and a new and better film will be produced. Raw Food and Performance Coming Soon. Recipes My personal favorite organic smoothie recipe: 2 ripe bananas 6 large dates 3 large leaves of kale 2 tablespoons Nutiva hemp seeds 1 tablespoon flax seeds 1 tablespoon dulse flakes 1 dash cinnamon 2 cups filtered water Training What does my training regimen look like? It all depends on the type of event I'm training for and the time of year. Currently I'm running about 91 miles a week. Which is accomplished by two runs of 5 to 13 miles a day. I also incorporate leg strength and core strength routines 3 times a week. On Tuesdays I do two to four mountain ascents at just below race pace. Typically, the mountains run have between 900 to 1,500 foot vertical gain. Thursdays are reserved for speedwork on the track. The length and intensity of the intervals depends on the event that I'm training for. I compete in a race every weekend which serves as a tempo run. Each race is preceded by a 3 mile warmup and a minimum of a 3 mile warmdown. Did I start training right away when I went raw? I was raw for a year before I started to train. I don't think it's a good idea to be on a training regimen when you are starting a raw diet. The detox can be pretty intense, and the exercise can further the stress on your immune system. What is my resting heart rate? Resting heart rate is measured the moment you first wake up in the morning, or after a period of 20 minutes of no activity. Currently, my RHR is 38. Was I athletic before I went raw? I was a competitive Cross Country skier and track athlete in high school. I competed my freshman and part of my sophomore years in college, then "retired" at age 20. (Back To Top) Weight Loss Eating a raw or living foods diet is one of the most effective ways to safely lose weight and keep it off. It is not uncommon for people to lose 25 lbs or more their first month of going raw.
fruitarians.blogspot.com — Only Fruit Is Nonviolent Food Plants Love Fruitarians Only Fruit Is Nonviolent Food .. For Only Fruit Is Food Not From Killing Or StealingWhat is a Fruitarian? Healthiest Environmental Reasons Most Non-Violent Most Free Most Food Yielding Best for Workers Safest Energy Most Conserving Closest to Light Habitat Creator Most Timesaving Fire Preventer Crime Preventer Money Maker Only Self Replicating Food Scriptures from Several Faiths Global Warming Preventer Most Varied God Designed Addiction Breaking Animal Protecting Natural Antidepressant Health Questions Quotable Quotes Beauty Empowerment World Peace and Justice Consciousness and Brain Development Wave of the Future
796 days ago 1 Comments Tags: sugar, carbs, carbohydrates, saccharide, sweet, glucose, sucrose, fructose, fructan, inulin
Sugars = Carbohydrates Sugar is an informal term for a class of edible carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose characterized by a sweet flavor. The term carbohydrates is most common in
1230 days ago 1 Comments Tags: organic, nutrition, taste, environment, soil, energy, biodiversity, pollution, farmers, safety
Why choose organic? More nutritious and less toxic food. More taste and flavour. Biodiversity, less pollution, good for farmers, control of food safety, better soils, energy efficiency. Nutrit
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