All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

science

  • Global Mortality from Noncommunicable Diseases Rose

    Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by ~ 8 million between 1990 and 2010 - every three deaths worldwide.

    8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago.

    Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed ~13 million people in 2010 - one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990.

    1.3 Million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990.

  • GMOs Are Not More Risky

    Europe: Biotechnology and GMOs are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies - a conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects in 25 years.

  • Weight Loss with Fruits and Vegetables

    An increase in total fruit intake was associated with a change in weight of -0.53 lb (a weight loss of 0.24 kg), and an increase in total vegetable intake was associated with a weight change of -0.25 lb (a weight loss of 0.11 kg) - for each extra daily serving over a 4 years period.

    133,468 US men and women were followed for up to 24 years. The benefits of increased consumption were strongest for berries, apples or pears, tofu (soy), cauliflower, and cruciferous and green leafy vegetables. Increased satiety with fewer calories could be partly responsible. Obesity is a primary risk factor for many life-shortening health conditions.

  • Genetics

    Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. 

    The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have 20,000 - 25,000 genes. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but less than 1% of genes are slightly different between people. Poplar tree genome suggests more than 45,000 genes.

  • Genetically Modified Organisms, GMO

    genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). GMOs are used to produce medications and genetically modified foods, and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. 

    A more specifically defined type of GMO is a "transgenic organism." This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. Typically GMOs are organisms whose genetic makeup has been altered without the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism.

  • Plants Have Many Genes

    Annotation of the first few complete plant genomes has revealed that plants have many genes. For Arabidopsis, over 26,500 gene loci have been predicted, whereas for rice, the number adds up to 41,000. Recent analysis of the poplar genome suggests more than 45,000 genes... 

    One explanation for the large increase in gene number during angiosperm evolution is gene duplication. It has been shown previously that the retention of duplicates following small- and large-scale duplication events in plants is substantial. Taking into account the function of genes that have been duplicated, we are now beginning to understand why many plant genes might have been retained, and how their retention might be linked to the typical lifestyle of plants.

  • Plants Are Susceptible to Cancer, Less Vulnerable to its Effects

    In animals, a tumor develops when a cell (or group of cells) loses the built-in controls that regulate its growth, often as a result of mutations. Plants can experience the same phenomenon, along with cancerous masses, but it tends to be brought on via infection. Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and insect infestation have all been tied to plant cancers. Oak trees, for example, often grow tumors that double as homes for larvae.

    The good news for plants is that even though they’re susceptible to cancer, they’re less vulnerable to its effects. For one thing, a vegetable tumor won’t metastasize. That’s because plant cells are typically locked in place by a matrix of rigid cell walls, so they can’t migrate. Even when a plant cell begins dividing uncontrollably, the tumor it creates remains stuck in one place usually with minor effects on the plant’s health—like a burl in a redwood tree.

    Plants also have the benefit of lacking any vital organs.

    Elliot Meyerowitz, a plant geneticist at the California Institute of Technology:

    “It’s bad to get a brain tumor if you’re a human, but there’s nothing that you can name that’s bad to get a tumor in if you’re a plant. Because whatever it is, you can make another.”

  • Recommendations for Cancer Prevention from 7,000 Studies

    Recommendations for cancer prevention from the WCRF / AICR:

    1. Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight.
    2. Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day. Limit sedentary habits.
    3. Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods.
    4. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and legumes such as beans.
    5. Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) and avoid processed meats.
    6. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day.
    7. Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt (sodium).
    8. Don't use supplements to protect against cancer.
  • Trusting Sense of Smell to Identify Ripe Fruit

    The interplay between the fruit-eating primates and the tropical fruit trees is an example of coevolution, where species adapt to each others’ needs over millions of years. The plants have an interest in their fruit being eaten when the seeds are ready to be dispersed, and for the animals the value of a fruit is greater when it contains more sugar and nutrients. An unripe banana for instance contains mostly starch.

    Prof. Matthias Laska

    ”This adaptation goes back some fifty thousand years, when the first primates appeared. Initially they ate mostly insects, before eventually trying fruit and vegetables. Some fruit didn’t want to be eaten, so they developed toxic substances. Others acquired better and better odours that signaled energy-rich sugar and nutrients.” 

  • Plants Respond to Sound and Touch

    Previous studies have suggested that plant growth can be influenced by sound and that plants respond to wind and touch. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri, in a collaboration that brings together audio and chemical analysis, have determined that plants respond to the sounds that caterpillars make when eating plants and that the plants respond with more defenses.

Dalai Lama

Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to a man. Just as one wants happiness and fears pain, just as one wants to live and not to die, so do other creatures.

All Known Essential Minerals

Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

Macrominerals

Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

  1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
  2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
  3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
  4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
  5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
  6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
  7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

Trace Minerals

Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

  1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
  2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
  3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
  4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
  5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
  6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
  7. selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
  8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

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