All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

proteins

  • Thermic Effect of Food and Negative Calories

    Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

    A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

    1. the total caloric content of the meals,
    2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

    Macronutrients:

    The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

    • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
    • Carbohydratesand fats5-15 %.

    Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

    Insulin

    Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

    Exercise

    The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

    • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
    • and by anaerobic weight training.

    "Negative"  Caloric Balance

    Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

  • One-Day Fruit Diet

    Consulting nutritionist and clinical dietitian in India, Pooja Makhija, on fruitarian diet:

  • On "Unusable Protein" to Don

    Don Bennet, DAS, in his video "Protein Explained" on his channel health101DOTorg, trying to explain / claim "how protein can cause autoimmune disease," mentioned that there is "unusable protein" and connected it to cooking. 

    I asked: 

    Don, could you please link to the studies that would support your statements about unusability of cooked proteins?

  • Plant Protein Balance

    Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. 

    Plant protein foods contribute ~ 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis, and ~ 32% in the North American region.

  • Amino Acids in Fruits and Seeds

    This is amazing how many times I was asked: where do you get your protein? Many people seem to think that there is no protein in fruit. Let's look into it. 

    1. How much protein one needs? ↓
    2. How much protein is in fruit and seeds? ↓
    3. Is that the right protein? ↓
  • Protein Quality of Cereal-Based Diets

    Protein quantity plant-based diets is shown not to be an issue. Inadequate amino acid supply is not an issue with most cereal-based diets.

    When used to score plant-based diets in India, no marked deficiencies are identified. All regions score > 1 for adults, whilst for children scores range from > 1, (Tamil Nadhu) from 6 months of age to 0.78 (West Bengal), rising to 0.9 in the 2-5 year old, consistent with reports that high-lysine maize supports similar weight and height growth to that of casein. 

    Digestibility is identified as a problem for some cereals (millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.)) and generally is poorly understood.

    A new maintenance requirement pattern is developed, with higher values than those of Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization / United Nations University (1985) but lower values than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pattern (Young et al. 1989).

    Calculations of age-related amino acid requirements are based on most recent estimates of human growth and maintenance protein requirements, a tissue amino acid pattern and the new maintenance amino acid pattern. These values appear valid when used to score plant proteins, since they indicate values similar to or less than the biological value measured directly in young children.

  • Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score

    The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) has been adopted by FAO/WHO as the preferred method for the measurement of the protein value in human nutrition. 

    PDCAAS = Amino Acid Score x Digestibility

    The method is based on comparison of the concentration of the first limiting essential amino acid in the test protein with the concentration of that amino acid in a reference (scoring) pattern. This scoring pattern is derived from the essential amino acid requirements of the preschool-age child.

    Although the principle of the PDCAAS method has been widely accepted, critical questions have been raised in the scientific community:

    1. the validity of the preschool-age child amino acid requirement values (more than 4 times greater than the EAA requirement for an adult),
    2. the validity of correction for fecal instead of ileal digestibility,
    3. the truncation of PDCAAS values to 100%.

    The reference scoring pattern was based on studies performed more than 25 years ago on a limited number of 2-year-old children recovering from malnutrition.

    According to the current official recommendations, a 2-year old child needs ~ 3x higher essential-to-non-essential amino acid ratio, and needs essential amino acids in different proportions than adult. Methionine/cysteine is the limiting essential amino acids for adults, and for children it is lysine or tryptophan.

    The use of fecal digestibility overestimates the nutritional value of a protein because amino acid nitrogen entering the colon is lost for protein synthesis in the body and is, at least in part, excreted in urine as ammonia.

  • Vitamin C

    Vitamin C, or L-ascorbic acid, or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans, a water-soluble vitamin. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. 

    • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen (an essential component of connective tissue), L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, it is also involved in protein metabolism.
    • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E by reducing vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. 
    • Vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and improves the absorption of nonheme iron, the form of iron present in plant-based foods.

    Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg a day. At doses above 1 g a day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine. 

    Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility.

    Cells accumulate vitamin C. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g.

    • High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain.
    • Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.
  • EAR and RDA for Amino Acids

    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for amino acids (protein) for healthy adults 19 y and older, mg/kg/day:

    • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average, estimated to meet the requirements of 50%.
    • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average, sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all.
    Amino Acids EAR RDA
    phenylalanine + tyrosine 27 33
    valine 19 24
    threonine 16 20
    tryptophan 4 5
    methionine + cysteine 15 19
    leucine 34 42
    isoleucine 15 19
    lysine 31 38
    histidine 11 14
  • Excessive Protein Intake

    Because the system for disposal of excess nitrogen is efficient, protein intakes moderately above requirement are believed to be safe.

    Brenner et al. (1982) postulated that excess protein intake accelerates the processes that lead to renal glomerular sclerosis, a common phenomenon of aging. There is supportive evidence from studies in animals, but not in humans on this point. Urinary calcium excretion increases with increased protein intake if phosphorus intake is constant. If phosphorus intake increases with protein intake, as it does in U.S. diets, the effect of protein is minimized.

    Habitual intakes of protein in the United States are substantially above the requirement, and although there is no firm evidence that these intake levels are harmful, it has been deemed prudent to maintain an upper bound of no more than twice the RDA for protein.

Albert Schweitzer

A man is ethical only when life, as such, is sacred to him, that of plants and animals as that of his fellow men, and when he devotes himself helpfully to all life that is in need of help. 

Food Energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles.

Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids, polyols, and ethanol present in the diet. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. 

Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules (J) or in its multiples; the kilojoule (kJ) is most often used for food-related quantities. An older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, is the "food calorie" or kilocalorie (kcal or Cal), equal to 4.184 kilojoules. 

<>Fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of food energy per mass, 37 and 29 kJ/g (8.8 and 6.9 kcal/g), respectively. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4.1 kcal/g). 

Conventional food energy is based on heats of combustion in a bomb calorimeter and corrections that take into consideration the efficiency of digestion and absorption and the production of urine. 

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