All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

prevention

Preventive healthcare (preventive medicine or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health encompasses a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, and lifestyle choices. Health, disease, and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions. 

Each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, unintentional injuries, diabetes, and certain infectious diseases. 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle

  • Risk Factors for Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Those experiencing pernicious anemia (an auto-immune reaction to either the parietal cells or intrinsic factor) go on to develop vitamin B12 deficiency through malabsorption if untreated. Deficiency could develop within 1–3 years in those experiencing malabsorption. 

    Patients having surgical alteration of the distal ileum, Crohn’s disease, and using metformin are also at an increased riskfor malabsorption.

    Herbert (1994) estimates that deficiency could take as long as 20–30 years to develop in persons having normal absorption/reabsorption and suddenly ceasing to include substantial amounts of vitamin B12 in their diet during adulthood. This is due to the large amount of vitamin B12 that can be stored in the body and recycled through enterohepatic reabsorption. 

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age and is associated with a number of conditions and treatments.

    The main causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are

    • poor dietary intake (as in vegetarianism),
    • poor absorption (occurring in achlorhydria, pernicious anemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, Crohn’s disease, and metformin use),
    • poor distribution (genetic predisposition for aberrant proteins that are inefficient in transport or cellular uptake of vitamin B12).
  • Protein Intake in Older Age

    Respondents aged 50–65 reporting high protein intake had a 75% increase in overall mortality and a 4-fold increase in cancer death risk during the following 18 years. These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the proteins were plant derived.

    Conversely, high protein intake was associated with reduced cancer and overall mortality in respondents over 65, but a 5-fold increase in diabetes mortality across all ages.

  • Fruits and Vegetables for Healthy Eyes

    Vision: Eating fruits and vegetables can keep your eyes healthy, and may help prevent common aging-related eye diseases - cataracts and macular degeneration - which afflict millions of Americans over age 65. 

  • Fruits and Vegetables for Healthier Arteries in Later Life

    Women who reported consuming the most fruits and vegetables (8 to 9 servings a day for a 2,000-calorie diet) in their 20s were 40% less likely to have calcified plaque in their arteries in their 40s compared with those who ate the least amount (3 to 4 servings a day) during the same time period.

    This association persisted even after researchers accounted for other lifestyle behaviors, as well as for their current-day diets, further demonstrating the role dietary patterns at younger ages may play.

  • Resveratrol in Red Wine is Not Healthy

    The lowest rates of heart disease were in people with the lowest levels of resveratrol. Resveratrol - a substance found in red wine, grapes and chocolate - may not add years to your life, and it doesn't appear to reduce the risk for heart disease or cancer either, according to new research.

    Resveratrol has been credited as being responsible for the so-called "French paradox," in which even a diet high in cholesterol and fat can be healthy if it is accompanied with red wine, the researchers explained. For the study, Semba's team followed nearly 800 men and women 65 years or older who were part of the Aging in the Chianti Region study from 1998 to 2009 in two villages in Italy.

    Researchers found no significant differences in the rate of death from those with the lowest levels of resveratrol to the highest.

  • Whole Nuts Reduce Cancer Risk But Not Oils

    Whole nuts - walnuts, pecans, peanuts, almonds - not the oils, may reduce cancer risk - another reason to add some nuts to your diet.

    Try to find uncracked nuts to reduce risk of consuming contaminated food.

  • Whole Fruits Prevent Diabetes But Not Juice

    People who ate at least two servings each week of certain whole fruits - particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples - reduced their risk for type 2 diabetes by 23% in comparison to those who ate less than one serving per month.

    Those who consumed one or more servings of fruit juice each day increased their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by as much as 21%.

  • White Fruits Like Apples and Pears Against Stroke

    One big apple or pear a day should reduce your risk of having stroke by 45%, almost by half.

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world. Dutch scientists found that eating fruit and vegetables with white edible portions was associated with a 52% lower stroke risk. Apples and pears were the majority of the fruits consumed in the study, and other foods in the white category were bananas, cauliflower, chicory and cucumber. Each 25 gram per day increase in white fruits and vegetable consumption was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke.

  • Fresh Fruits to Live Longer

    To live longer, eat 7+ pieces of fresh fruits or vegetables a day, but not canned or frozen.

    People who ate at least 7 portions of fruit and vegetables each day were 42% less likely to die from any cause.

    It was shown in a recent European study that followed more than 65 thousands participants over 12 years. People with the highest intakes were also 25% less likely to die from cancer and 31% less likely to die from heart disease. Analyzing studies like this, we need to remember that term “vegetables” usually include non-sweet fruits in botanical sense, like tomatoes, bell peppers, cucumbers, eggplants, squashes, and many others. See VegetablesFruits.

    But canned and frozen fruit increased the risk of dying by 17%, and fruit juice was found to have no significant benefit.

    The lead author of this study, Dr. Oyinlola Oyebode of department of epidemiology and public health in UCL, said:

    “The clear message here is that the more fruit and vegetables you eat, the less likely you are to die at any age. My advice would be however much you are eating now, eat more.” 

  • Fresh Fruit Against Cardiovascular Diseases

    The more fresh fruit people ate, the more their risk of cardiovascular disease declined, including stroke.

    Those who ate fruit daily cut their heart disease risks by 25-40%, and cut their overall risk of death by 32%.

Richard Dawkins

I'd like everybody to be a vegetarian... In 100 or 200 years time, we may look back on the way we treated animals today as something like we today look back on the way our forefathers treated slaves.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or L-ascorbic acid, or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans, a water-soluble vitamin. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. 

  • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen (an essential component of connective tissue), L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, it is also involved in protein metabolism.
  • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E by reducing vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. 
  • Vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and improves the absorption of nonheme iron, the form of iron present in plant-based foods.

Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg a day. At doses above 1 g a day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine. 

Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility.

Cells accumulate vitamin C. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g.

  • High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain.
  • Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.

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