All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

plants

Plant is a multicellular eukaryote, kingdom Plantae - the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae. Green plants exclude the red and brown algae, the fungi, archaea, bacteria and animals. Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts, derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize.

There are ~300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority are seed plants. Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of the earth's ecologies, especially on land. Plants that produce grains, fruits and vegetables provide basic food to humankind. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.

  • Blue Iridescent Fruits without Pigment

    Blue iridescent berry, no blue pigment

    Blue African fruit of a plant plant Pollia condensata contains no blue pigment. The blue and its iridescent shine are caused by a Bragg reflection - intense peaks of light generated at certain wavelengths and angles - created by spirally stacked cellulose fibers that form multiple layers in the fruit's skin.

  • Plants can Learn and Make Decisions

    History of Plant Studies: 

    In the centuries following the time of Aristotle and his students, who made the first philosophical attempts to understand plants in their complexity, interest in herb plants was limited mainly to their medical usage. This changed in the sixteenth century when the first biological attempts were done to understand the basic principles of structure and function of plants. At first, studies were largely devoted to plant distribution, taxonomy, and morphology. Later, taking the lead from medicine, anatomy and cytology of plants were added to the curriculum of plant sciences, as studied in the early universities.

    In fact, the cellular nature of living organisms was first elaborated using plants (Hooke 1665). By the end of the 19th century, it was realised that plants were even more similar to animals than had been thought hitherto.

    • For their reproduction, plants use identical sexual processes.
    • Plants attacked by pathogens develop immunity, using the corresponding processes and mechanisms in animals.
    • Both animals and plants use the same molecules and pathways to drive their circadian rhythms.

    Critical mass of new data has been accumulated, culminating in the emergence of plant neurobiology.

    Plants are intelligent organisms, which perform complex information processing. The word "neuron" was taken by animal neurobiologists from Greek where the original meaning of this word is vegetal fibre.

    Auxin emerges as a plant-specific neurotransmitter. Roots are specialized not only for the uptake of nutrients, but also seem to support neuronal-like activities based on plant synapses. Vascular elements allow the rapid spread of hydraulic signals and action potentials, resembling nerves. Plants are capable of learning and make decisions about their future activities according to the actual environmental conditions. It is obvious that they possess a complex apparatus for the storage and processing of information.

  • Trees

     A tree is a plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years.

    A variety of plant species have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches to compete for sunlight. In more general sense, tall palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. The roots branch out under the ground to anchor the tree and to extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches usually bear leaves, which capture light. 

    Trees reduce erosion and moderate the climate. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Some trees provide edible fruit

  • Feeling Healthier with More Trees

    Toronto study suggest that people who live in neighborhoods with a higher density of trees on their streets report significantly higher health perception and significantly less cardio-metabolic conditions (controlling for socio-economic and demographic factors).

    Having 10 more trees in a city block, on average, improves health perception in ways comparable to an increase in annual personal income of $10,000 or being 7 years younger.

  • Love Emails to Trees

    People wrote thousands of love emails to trees

    The city of Melbourne assigned trees email addresses so citizens could report problems. Instead, people wrote thousands of love letters to their favorite trees.

    To: Golden Elm, Tree ID 1037148, 21 May 2015: 

    I'm so sorry you're going to die soon. It makes me sad when trucks damage your low hanging branches. 

    To: Algerian Oak, Tree ID 1032705, 2 February 2015: 

    Thank you for giving us oxygen. Thank you for being so pretty.

    To: Green Leaf Elm, Tree ID 1022165, 29 May 2015: 

    I don't think that there is much more to talk about as we don't have a lot in common, you being a tree and such. But I'm glad we're in this together.

    To: Willow Leaf Peppermint, Tree ID 1357982, 29 January 2015: 

    Do trees have genders? I hope you've had some nice sun today.

  • Forests

    A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, cover approximately 30% of the world's land, and contain 80% of the plant biomass.

  • Plants Have Many Genes

    Annotation of the first few complete plant genomes has revealed that plants have many genes. For Arabidopsis, over 26,500 gene loci have been predicted, whereas for rice, the number adds up to 41,000. Recent analysis of the poplar genome suggests more than 45,000 genes... 

    One explanation for the large increase in gene number during angiosperm evolution is gene duplication. It has been shown previously that the retention of duplicates following small- and large-scale duplication events in plants is substantial. Taking into account the function of genes that have been duplicated, we are now beginning to understand why many plant genes might have been retained, and how their retention might be linked to the typical lifestyle of plants.

  • Red Inside Nutrient Rich Apples

    Redlove or Bloody Ploughman were bred from wild apples in their original home in Kazakhstan – many of these varieties are under threat due to forest clearance, showing how vital conservation work is for the future of our food. These apple trees have pink blossom. These apples are red inside and can contain up to twice the polyphenols and five times the healthy anthocyanins of regular light-fleshed apples.

    Once established, apples are one of the easiest fruits to grow, capable of kicking out decades of harvests for the 30 minutes it takes to plant one. Pick a sunny site with well-drained soil and make sure you keep plants evenly watered for their first year or so of growth. After that they will largely look after themselves.

  • Plants Are Susceptible to Cancer, Less Vulnerable to its Effects

    In animals, a tumor develops when a cell (or group of cells) loses the built-in controls that regulate its growth, often as a result of mutations. Plants can experience the same phenomenon, along with cancerous masses, but it tends to be brought on via infection. Fungi, bacteria, viruses, and insect infestation have all been tied to plant cancers. Oak trees, for example, often grow tumors that double as homes for larvae.

    The good news for plants is that even though they’re susceptible to cancer, they’re less vulnerable to its effects. For one thing, a vegetable tumor won’t metastasize. That’s because plant cells are typically locked in place by a matrix of rigid cell walls, so they can’t migrate. Even when a plant cell begins dividing uncontrollably, the tumor it creates remains stuck in one place usually with minor effects on the plant’s health—like a burl in a redwood tree.

    Plants also have the benefit of lacking any vital organs.

    Elliot Meyerowitz, a plant geneticist at the California Institute of Technology:

    “It’s bad to get a brain tumor if you’re a human, but there’s nothing that you can name that’s bad to get a tumor in if you’re a plant. Because whatever it is, you can make another.”

  • Flowering Plant Origin of 11 Percent Basic Drugs

    11% Of the 252 drugs considered as basic and essential by the WHO were exclusively of flowering plant origin.

    Up to 50% the approved drugs during the last 30 years are from either directly or indirectly from natural products

Mahatma Gandhi

The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

Forests

A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, cover approximately 30% of the world's land, and contain 80% of the plant biomass.

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