All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

phytonutrients

  • Carotenoids

    Carotenoids are a class of more than 750 pigments synthesized by plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These richly colored molecules are the sources of the yellow, orange, and red colors of many plants. Fruit and vegetables provide most of the 40 to 50 carotenoid phytonutrients found in the human diet.

    The most common carotenoids in North American diets are α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. 

    Provitamin A carotenoids - α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin - can be converted by the body to retinol (vitamin A), but not lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. 

    Dietary lutein and zeaxanthin help maintain optimal visual function - they absorb damaging blue light that enters the eye.

    The results of observational studies suggest that diets high in carotenoid-rich fruit and vegetables are associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. But high-dose β-carotene supplements did not

  • Phytonutrients

    Plant foods contain thousands of natural chemicals, which are called phytonutrients or phytochemicals ("phyto" means "plant"). These chemicals help protect plants from germs, fungi, bugs, and other threats. Phytonutrients are not essential, but they may help prevent disease.

    More than 25,000 phytochemicals are found in plant foods, and six important phytonutrients are: 

    • Carotenoids
    • Ellagic acid
    • Flavonoids
    • Resveratrol
    • Glucosinolates
    • Phytoestrogens

  • Red Inside Nutrient Rich Apples

    Redlove or Bloody Ploughman were bred from wild apples in their original home in Kazakhstan – many of these varieties are under threat due to forest clearance, showing how vital conservation work is for the future of our food. These apple trees have pink blossom. These apples are red inside and can contain up to twice the polyphenols and five times the healthy anthocyanins of regular light-fleshed apples.

    Once established, apples are one of the easiest fruits to grow, capable of kicking out decades of harvests for the 30 minutes it takes to plant one. Pick a sunny site with well-drained soil and make sure you keep plants evenly watered for their first year or so of growth. After that they will largely look after themselves.

George Berkeley

If a tree falls in the forest and no one is there to hear it, does it make a sound?

Enterotypes and Microflora

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella. 

  • People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora
  • Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats. 
  • Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.

Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention. 

Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans. 

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