All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Nutrients

Nutrients are component in foods that an organism uses for maintenance and growth.

  • All Known Essential Minerals

    Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

    Macrominerals

    Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

    1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
    2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
    3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
    4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
    5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
    6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
    7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

    Trace Minerals

    Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

    1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
    2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
    3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
    4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
    5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
    6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
    7. selenium, Se (35mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
    8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

  • Brain Protectors

    Dr. Neal Barnard's "brain protectors" against Alzheimer's: almonds, apricots, beans, chickpeas, blueberries, grapes, leaves and sweet potatoes.

    Avoid saturated and trans fats, excess iron, copper and aluminum.

  • Nori and Chlorella for B12

    A nutritional analysis for the dietary food intake and serum vitamin B12 (cobalamin) level of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet for 4 to 10 years suggests that consumption of nori may keep vegans from suffering vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Rauma et al. also reported that vegans consuming nori and/or chlorella had a serum vitamin B12 concentration twice as high as those not consuming these algae.

  • Vegetarian Diets and Health

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish, vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely.

    In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables.

    In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually

    • rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg,
    • relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B12, zinc (Zn),
    • vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B12 and low intakes of Ca.

    On average, vegetarians and vegans have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration, but higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  • Fluoride in Water WHO Recommendation

    The World Health Organization’s drinking water quality Guideline Value for fluoride is 1.5 mg / litre (WHO, 1993).

    WHO emphasises that in setting national standards for fluoride it is particularly important to consider climatic conditions, volumes of water intake, and intake of fluoride from other sources (e.g. food and air).

  • Fluoride in Water and Dental or Skeletal Fluorosis

    There is no good evidence of any adverse medical effects associated with the consumption of water with fluoride naturally or artificially added at a concentration of 0.5 – 1.0 mg / litre other than the increase in dental fluorosis. US studies in areas with natural fluoride levels of up to 8 mg / litre found no clinical evidence of harm. However there is clear evidence from India and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur as a result of long-term excessive exposure to fluoride (total intakes of 14 mg fluoride per day), and evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at total intakes above about 6 mg fluoride per day.

  • Whole Fruits for Satiety

    For satiety choose whole fruit over smoothies and juices.

    Solid fruits affect feeling of fullness more than pureed fruit or juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice do not enhance satiety.

  • Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

    Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

    Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

    In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

    Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

  • Common Plant Toxins

    Food plants are known to produce a wide array of chemicals. The levels of many of the more toxic ones have been reduced by hybridisation, but many of these natural toxins are still present at low levels. Eating very large amounts of one type of such foods can possibly be somewhat toxic.

    Common Plant Toxins and Antinutrients

    Toxins (occurrence in plant foods) - possible effect on humans and animals in large amounts:
    • Cyanogenic glycosides (sweet potatoes, stone fruits, lima beans) - gastrointestinal inflammation, inhibition of cellular respiration.
    • Glulcosinolates (canola, mustard, radish, cabbage, peanut, soybean, onion) - impaired metabolism, reduced iodine uptake, decreased protein digestion.
    • Glycoalkaloids (potato, tomato) - depressed central nervous system, kidney inflammation, carcinogenic, birth defects, reduced iron absorption.
    • Gossypol (cottonseed) - reduced iron uptake, spermicidal, carcinogenic.
    • Lectins (most cereals, soybeans, other beans, potatoes) - intestinal inflammation, decreased nutrient absorption.
    • Oxalate (spinach, rhubarb, tomato) - reduces solubility of calcium, iron, and zinc.
    • Phenols (most fruits and vegetables, cereals, soybean, potato, tea, coffee) - destroys thiamine, raises cholesterol, estrogen-mimic.
    • Coumarins (celery, parsley, parsnips, figs) - light-activated carcinogens, skin irritation.
  • Calcium Requirement and Animal Protein

    One study found that 0.85 mg of calcium was lost for each gram (1 g) of protein in the diet. A meta-analysis of 16 studies in 154 adult humans on protein intakes up to 200 g found that 1.2 mg of calcium was lost in the urine for every 1g rise in dietary protein. A small but more focussed study showed a rise of 40 mg in urinary calcium when dietary animal protein was raised from 40 to 80 g. Urinary calcium to dietary protein ratio is 1 mg to 1g. The empirical observation that each 1 g of protein results in 1 mg of calcium in the urine agrees very well with the phosphorus content of animal protein (about 1 percent by weight).

    This means that a 40 g reduction in animal protein intake from 60 to 20 g would reduce calcium requirement by the same amount as a 2.3 g reduction in dietary sodium, i.e. from 840 to 600 mg

    How animal protein exerts its effect on calcium excretion is not fully understood. 

Carl Sagan

A sharp distinction between humans and “animals” is essential if we are to bend them to our will, make them work for us, wear them, eat them–without any disquieting tinges of guilt or regret. It is unseemly of us, who often behave so unfeeling toward other animals, to contend that only humans can suffer. The behavior of other animals renders such pretensions specious. They are just too much like us.

Fruits

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (for example, cherries, berries, bean pods, corn kernels, tomatoes, grains). "Fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state (apples, grapes, lemons, strawberries, etc). 

Edible fruits have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. 

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