All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Nutrients

Nutrients are component in foods that an organism uses for maintenance and growth.

  • EAR and RDA for Amino Acids

    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for amino acids (protein) for healthy adults 19 y and older, mg/kg/day:

    • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average, estimated to meet the requirements of 50%.
    • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average, sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all.
    Amino Acids EAR RDA
    phenylalanine + tyrosine 27 33
    valine 19 24
    threonine 16 20
    tryptophan 4 5
    methionine + cysteine 15 19
    leucine 34 42
    isoleucine 15 19
    lysine 31 38
    histidine 11 14
  • Dietary Reference Intake DRI

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. They include both recommended intakes and upper intake levels.

    Although the reference values are based on data, the data are often insufficient or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the question. Scientific judgment is required in setting the reference values. 

    • EAR - Estimated Average Requirement - a nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a group.
    • RDA - Recommended Dietary Allowance - the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a group.
    • AI - Adequate Intake: a value based on observed or experimentally determined approximations of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people.
      Used when an RDA cannot be determined.
    • UL - Tolerable Upper Intake Level - the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases.
  • Estimated Average Requirement EAR

    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half  - 50% - of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. 

    Because the needs of the other half of the population will not be met by this amount, the EAR is increased by about 20% to arrive at the RDA.

    Before setting the EAR, a specific criterion of adequacy is selected, based on a careful review of the literature. When selecting the criterion, reduction of disease risk is considered along with many other health parameters. 

  • Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA

    Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all - ~97% - healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. 

    The process for setting the RDA depends on being able to set an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If an EAR cannot be set, no RDA will be set. The EAR is the daily intake value of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the nutrient requirement of half the healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group.

    The RDA is set at the EAR plus twice the standard deviation (SD) if known (RDA = EAR + 2 SD). If data about variability in requirements are insufficient to calculate a standard deviation, a coefficient of variation for the EAR of 10% is ordinarily assumed (RDA = 1.2 x EAR).

    The RDA for a nutrient is a value to be used as a goal for dietary intake by healthy individuals. The RDA is not intended to be used to assess the diets of either individuals or groups or to plan diets for groups.

  • Vitamin B9 Folic Acid

    Vitamin B9, also called folate or folic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins.

    • Folic acid is the synthetic form of B9, found in supplements and fortified foods.
    • Folate occurs naturally in foods.

    Folic acid is crucial for proper brain function and plays an important role in mental and emotional health. It aids in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material, and is especially important when cells and tissues are growing rapidly, such as in infancy, adolescence, and pregnancy.

    Folic acid also works closely with vitamin B12 to help make red blood cells and help iron work properly in the body.

    Rich sources of folate include: spinach, dark leafy greens, asparagus, mustard greens, brussels sprouts, beans, soybeans, root vegetables, whole grains, oranges, avocado. 

  • Overnutrition

    Overnutrition, a type of malnutrition, is emerging with rates of obesity and related chronic diseases associated with urbanisation, aging populations, technological development and globalisation of food supplies and industry. Billions of dollars are spent annually by the food industry to promote the consumption of highly refined, high-calorie foods with little or no nutritional value. 

    At least 35 million overweight children are living in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries. Children are increasingly exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods which tend to be cheaper than healthy foods. General imbalance in energy intake compared to physical activity levels is driving the obesity epidemic. In industrialised countries, child obesity risk is associated with lower household income, women with less education, and single parent households.

    Obesity is increasingly prevalent among adolescent girls and women, as access to a greater quantity of inexpensive, tasty, and convenient foods increases. 

    Taxation on high-calorie, low-nutrition foods can play a significant role in reducing the consumption of such products. Population-wide weight-control campaigns that raise awareness among medical staff, policy-makers and the public at large can also help to reduce obesity. Particularly important is the promotion of health literacy. Additional measures include restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy foods and sugary drinks to children, and controls on the use of misleading health and nutrition claims; mandatory front-of-pack food labelling helps consumers to identify healthier options. 

  • Excessive Protein Intake

    Because the system for disposal of excess nitrogen is efficient, protein intakes moderately above requirement are believed to be safe.

    Brenner et al. (1982) postulated that excess protein intake accelerates the processes that lead to renal glomerular sclerosis, a common phenomenon of aging. There is supportive evidence from studies in animals, but not in humans on this point. Urinary calcium excretion increases with increased protein intake if phosphorus intake is constant. If phosphorus intake increases with protein intake, as it does in U.S. diets, the effect of protein is minimized.

    Habitual intakes of protein in the United States are substantially above the requirement, and although there is no firm evidence that these intake levels are harmful, it has been deemed prudent to maintain an upper bound of no more than twice the RDA for protein.

  • Amino Acid Requirements for Adults

    Estimates of Amino Acid Requirements for adultsmg / kg per day

    • Phenylalanine + tyrosine: 14
    • Leucine: 14
    • Methionine + cystine13
    • Histidine: 8–12
    • Lysine: 12
    • Isoleucine: 10
    • Valine: 10
    • Threonine: 7
    • Tryptophan: 3.5

  • Protein Deficiency

    Protein deficiency rarely occurs as an isolated condition. It usually accompanies a deficiency of dietary energy and other nutrients resulting from insufficient food intake.

    Deficiency of this severity is very rare in the United States, except as a consequence of pathologic conditions.

    The symptoms are most commonly seen in deprived children in poor countries:

    • stunting,
    • poor musculature,
    • edema,
    • thin and fragile hair,
    • skin lesions
    • hormonal imbalances.

    Edema and loss of muscle mass and hair are the prominent signs in adults. 

  • Phenylalanine Food Sources

    Fruitarian foods high in amino acid phenylalanine, per 100 g (~1/5 lb): 

    • Spirulina, dried - 2777 mg 
    • Soybeans - 2122 mg 
    • Pumpkin or squash seeds - 1642 mg 
    • Peanuts - 1427 mg 
    • Kidney beans - 1370 mg 
    • Lentils, sprouted - 442 mg 
    • Avocados - 260 mg
    • Raisins - 140 mg 
    • Grapefruit - 53mg 

Aristotle

Educating the mind without educating the heart is no education at all.

Animals

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa). All animals can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

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