All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

minerals

  • Zinc

    Zinc is a nutritionally essential mineral needed for catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions in the body.

    The RDA (recommended daily allowance) for adult women and men is 8 mg a day and 11 mg a day of zinc, respectively.

    Severe zinc deficiency is a rare, genetic or acquired condition. Dietary zinc deficiency, often called marginal zinc deficiency, is quite common in the developing world, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Zinc deficiency can cause impaired growth and development in children, pregnancy complications, immune dysfunction, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term consumption of zinc in excess of the tolerable upper intake level of 40 mg a day for adults can result incopper deficiency.

    Zinc bioavailability is relatively high in meat, eggs, and seafood. Zinc is less bioavailable from whole grains and legumes due to the inhibitory effects of phytic acid on absorption of the mineral.

  • Fruitarian Food Sources of Zinc

    I composed two lists with a few examples of the fruitarian food sources of zinc: fruits, seeds, seaweeds and mushrooms. You can compare the amounts of zinc in them with the recommended daily allowance of the mineral. RDA is usually around 20% higher than the amount needed for half of the healthy people. 

  • Vitamin C

    Vitamin C, or L-ascorbic acid, or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans, a water-soluble vitamin. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. 

    • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen (an essential component of connective tissue), L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, it is also involved in protein metabolism.
    • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E by reducing vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. 
    • Vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and improves the absorption of nonheme iron, the form of iron present in plant-based foods.

    Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg a day. At doses above 1 g a day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine. 

    Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility.

    Cells accumulate vitamin C. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g.

    • High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain.
    • Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.
  • Nutrient-Dense Food

    Nutrient-dense foods are foods that have a lot of nutrients but relatively few calories.

    Nutrient-dense foods and beverages contain: vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other beneficial substances that may have positive health effects.

    They are also naturally lean or low in saturated fat, and have little or no added saturated fat, sugars, refined starches, and sodium.

    Examples of nutrient dense foods are: beans and peas, fresh fruit, unsalted nuts and seeds, vegetables, whole grains - most fruitarian foods are nutrient-dense.

  • Excessive Protein Intake

    Because the system for disposal of excess nitrogen is efficient, protein intakes moderately above requirement are believed to be safe.

    Brenner et al. (1982) postulated that excess protein intake accelerates the processes that lead to renal glomerular sclerosis, a common phenomenon of aging. There is supportive evidence from studies in animals, but not in humans on this point. Urinary calcium excretion increases with increased protein intake if phosphorus intake is constant. If phosphorus intake increases with protein intake, as it does in U.S. diets, the effect of protein is minimized.

    Habitual intakes of protein in the United States are substantially above the requirement, and although there is no firm evidence that these intake levels are harmful, it has been deemed prudent to maintain an upper bound of no more than twice the RDA for protein.

  • Choline Recommended Intake from Seeds and Fruits

    Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.

    The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.

    Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.

    Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline

    Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Soybeans - 124 mg 
    • Lima beans - 97 mg 
    • Lentils - 96 mg
    • Peas (mature) - 96 mg
    • Flaxseeds - 79 mg 
    • Pistachio nuts - 71 mg 
    • Quinoa - 70 mg 
    • Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) -  63 mg 
    • Cashew nuts - 61 mg 
    • Pine nuts - 56 mg 
    • Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg 
    • Buckwheat - 54 mg 
    • Almonds - 52 mg 

    Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg 
    • Apples - 18 mg 
    • Figs - 16 mg 
    • Avocados - 14 mg 
  • All Known Essential Minerals

    Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

    Macrominerals

    Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

    1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
    2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
    3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
    4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
    5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
    6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
    7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

    Trace Minerals

    Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

    1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
    2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
    3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
    4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
    5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
    6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
    7. selenium, Se (35mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
    8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

  • Brain Protectors

    Dr. Neal Barnard's "brain protectors" against Alzheimer's: almonds, apricots, beans, chickpeas, blueberries, grapes, leaves and sweet potatoes.

    Avoid saturated and trans fats, excess iron, copper and aluminum.

  • Vegetarian Diets and Health

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish, vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely.

    In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables.

    In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually

    • rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg,
    • relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B12, zinc (Zn),
    • vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B12 and low intakes of Ca.

    On average, vegetarians and vegans have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration, but higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  • Fluoride in Water WHO Recommendation

    The World Health Organization’s drinking water quality Guideline Value for fluoride is 1.5 mg / litre (WHO, 1993).

    WHO emphasises that in setting national standards for fluoride it is particularly important to consider climatic conditions, volumes of water intake, and intake of fluoride from other sources (e.g. food and air).

George Bernard Shaw

The thought of two thousand people crunching celery at the same time horrified me.

Bacteria and Archaea

Archaea and bacteria (eubacteria) are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or organelles. Archaea have a distinct evolutionary history and biochemistry compared with bacteria.

Archaea - a domain of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes. Archaea can survive in extreme and harsh environments like hot springs, salt lakes, marshlands, oceans, gut of ruminants and humans.

Bacteria - a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Eubacteria are ubiquitous and are found in soil, hot springs, radioactive waste water, Earth's crust, organic matter, bodies of plants and animals, etc.

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