All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

vitamins minerals phytonutrients

  • Vitamins B12, B9, B6 and Heart Disease

    Vitamin B9 (folate, folic acid) works with vitamins B6 and B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients to control blood levels of the amino acidhomocysteine. 

    Elevated homocysteine levels in blood are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although B vitamin supplementation has been proven effective to control homocysteine levels, current data from intervention trials have not shown that lowering homocysteine levels decreases cardiovascular disease risk. Researchers are not sure whether homocysteine is a cause of heart disease or just a marker that indicates someone may have heart disease.

  • Choline Recommended Intake from Seeds and Fruits

    Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.

    The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.

    Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.

    Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline

    Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Soybeans - 124 mg 
    • Lima beans - 97 mg 
    • Lentils - 96 mg
    • Peas (mature) - 96 mg
    • Flaxseeds - 79 mg 
    • Pistachio nuts - 71 mg 
    • Quinoa - 70 mg 
    • Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) -  63 mg 
    • Cashew nuts - 61 mg 
    • Pine nuts - 56 mg 
    • Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg 
    • Buckwheat - 54 mg 
    • Almonds - 52 mg 

    Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: 

    • Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg 
    • Apples - 18 mg 
    • Figs - 16 mg 
    • Avocados - 14 mg 
  • All Known Essential Minerals

    Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

    Macrominerals

    Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

    1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
    2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
    3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
    4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
    5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
    6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
    7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

    Trace Minerals

    Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

    1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
    2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
    3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
    4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
    5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
    6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
    7. selenium, Se (35mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
    8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

  • Brain Protectors

    Dr. Neal Barnard's "brain protectors" against Alzheimer's: almonds, apricots, beans, chickpeas, blueberries, grapes, leaves and sweet potatoes.

    Avoid saturated and trans fats, excess iron, copper and aluminum.

  • Nori and Chlorella for B12

    A nutritional analysis for the dietary food intake and serum vitamin B12 (cobalamin) level of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet for 4 to 10 years suggests that consumption of nori may keep vegans from suffering vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Rauma et al. also reported that vegans consuming nori and/or chlorella had a serum vitamin B12 concentration twice as high as those not consuming these algae.

  • Vegetarian Diets and Health

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish, vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely.

    In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables.

    In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually

    • rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg,
    • relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B12, zinc (Zn),
    • vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B12 and low intakes of Ca.

    On average, vegetarians and vegans have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration, but higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  • Fluoride in Water WHO Recommendation

    The World Health Organization’s drinking water quality Guideline Value for fluoride is 1.5 mg / litre (WHO, 1993).

    WHO emphasises that in setting national standards for fluoride it is particularly important to consider climatic conditions, volumes of water intake, and intake of fluoride from other sources (e.g. food and air).

  • Fluoride in Water and Dental or Skeletal Fluorosis

    There is no good evidence of any adverse medical effects associated with the consumption of water with fluoride naturally or artificially added at a concentration of 0.5 – 1.0 mg / litre other than the increase in dental fluorosis. US studies in areas with natural fluoride levels of up to 8 mg / litre found no clinical evidence of harm. However there is clear evidence from India and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur as a result of long-term excessive exposure to fluoride (total intakes of 14 mg fluoride per day), and evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at total intakes above about 6 mg fluoride per day.

  • Calcium Requirement and Animal Protein

    One study found that 0.85 mg of calcium was lost for each gram (1 g) of protein in the diet. A meta-analysis of 16 studies in 154 adult humans on protein intakes up to 200 g found that 1.2 mg of calcium was lost in the urine for every 1g rise in dietary protein. A small but more focussed study showed a rise of 40 mg in urinary calcium when dietary animal protein was raised from 40 to 80 g. Urinary calcium to dietary protein ratio is 1 mg to 1g. The empirical observation that each 1 g of protein results in 1 mg of calcium in the urine agrees very well with the phosphorus content of animal protein (about 1 percent by weight).

    This means that a 40 g reduction in animal protein intake from 60 to 20 g would reduce calcium requirement by the same amount as a 2.3 g reduction in dietary sodium, i.e. from 840 to 600 mg

    How animal protein exerts its effect on calcium excretion is not fully understood. 

  • Calcium Intake and Bone Fracture Risk

    With the exception of calcium deficiency rickets in Nigeria, no satisfactory explanation has been found for the apparently low prevalence of osteoporosis in countries on low calcium intakes. On international comparisons on a larger scale, it is very difficult to separate genetic from environmental factors. Osteoporosis was largely a disease of affluent industrialized cultures. Hip fracture prevalence (and by implication osteoporosis) is consequently related to animal protein intake, but also, paradoxically, to calcium intake because of the strong correlation between calcium and protein intakes within and between societies. This could be explained if protein actually increased calcium requirement. 

    Fracture risk has recently been shown to be a function of protein intake in North American women. There is also suggestive evidence that hip fracture rates depend on protein intake, national income, and latitude. Vitamin D deficiency in hip fracture patients in the developed world was established. Such fractures can be successfully prevented with small doses of vitamin D and calcium. It is therefore possible that hip fracture rates may be related to protein intake, vitamin D status, or both.

Franz Kafka

Now I can look at you in peace; I don't eat you any more.

Nutrients

Nutrient - a substance that provides essential nourishment for growth and the maintenance of life. 

Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise 90% of the dry weight of foods. 

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