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lysine

  • Protein Quality of Cereal-Based Diets

    Protein quantity plant-based diets is shown not to be an issue. Inadequate amino acid supply is not an issue with most cereal-based diets.

    When used to score plant-based diets in India, no marked deficiencies are identified. All regions score > 1 for adults, whilst for children scores range from > 1, (Tamil Nadhu) from 6 months of age to 0.78 (West Bengal), rising to 0.9 in the 2-5 year old, consistent with reports that high-lysine maize supports similar weight and height growth to that of casein. 

    Digestibility is identified as a problem for some cereals (millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.)) and generally is poorly understood.

    A new maintenance requirement pattern is developed, with higher values than those of Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization / United Nations University (1985) but lower values than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pattern (Young et al. 1989).

    Calculations of age-related amino acid requirements are based on most recent estimates of human growth and maintenance protein requirements, a tissue amino acid pattern and the new maintenance amino acid pattern. These values appear valid when used to score plant proteins, since they indicate values similar to or less than the biological value measured directly in young children.

  • EAR and RDA for Amino Acids

    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for amino acids (protein) for healthy adults 19 y and older, mg/kg/day:

    • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average, estimated to meet the requirements of 50%.
    • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average, sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all.
    Amino Acids EAR RDA
    phenylalanine + tyrosine 27 33
    valine 19 24
    threonine 16 20
    tryptophan 4 5
    methionine + cysteine 15 19
    leucine 34 42
    isoleucine 15 19
    lysine 31 38
    histidine 11 14
  • Amino Acid Requirements for Adults

    Estimates of Amino Acid Requirements for adultsmg / kg per day

    • Phenylalanine + tyrosine: 14
    • Leucine: 14
    • Methionine + cystine13
    • Histidine: 8–12
    • Lysine: 12
    • Isoleucine: 10
    • Valine: 10
    • Threonine: 7
    • Tryptophan: 3.5

  • All Essential Amino Acids

    An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism, and must be supplied in diet. 

    The 9 amino acids humans cannot synthesize (F V T W M L I K H):

    • phenylalanine
    • valine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • methionine
    • leucine
    • isoleucine
    • lysine
    • histidine

    Animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids.

    Synthesis of 6 other amino acids - conditionally essential - can be limited under special conditions (R C G Q P Y)arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine.

    Dispensable amino acids can be synthesized in the human body, 5 (A D N E S): alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine .

Plutarch

But for the sake of some little mouthful of flesh we deprive a soul of the sun and light, and of that proportion of life and time it had been born into the world to enjoy.

Vitamin B1 Thiamine

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Thiamine) is one of 8 B vitamins, the first B vitamin discovered. All B vitamins help the body convert carbohydrates into glucose, which the body uses to produce energy, B-complex vitamins also help the body metabolize fats and protein. All B vitamins are water soluble.

All living organisms use thiamine, but it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Animals must obtain it from their diet, therefore for humans it is an essential nutrient.  Your body needs it to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy.

B1 helps convert food into energy, needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain. 

Thiamine deficiency has a potentially fatal outcome if it remains untreated. In less-severe cases, nonspecific signs include malaise, weight loss, irritability and confusion.

Recommended daily amount: 1.1 - 1.2 mg (~ 50 g of flaxseeds, or sesame tahini, or 100 g pine or sunflower seeds, or corn flour).

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