All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

iron

  • All Known Essential Minerals

    Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.

    Macrominerals

    Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ): 

    1. potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells; 
    2. chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids; 
    3. sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
    4. calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
    5. phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life; 
    6. choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
    7. magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;

    Trace Minerals

    Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day: 

    1. iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
    2. zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
    3. manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
    4. fluorineF, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
    5. copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
    6. iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
    7. selenium, Se (35mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
    8. chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.

  • Vitamin C

    Vitamin C, or L-ascorbic acid, or ascorbate, is an essential nutrient for humans, a water-soluble vitamin. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. 

    • Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen (an essential component of connective tissue), L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters, it is also involved in protein metabolism.
    • Vitamin C is also an important physiological antioxidant and has been shown to regenerate other antioxidants within the body, including alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Vitamin C regenerates vitamin E by reducing vitamin E radicals formed when vitamin E scavenges the oxygen radicals. 
    • Vitamin C plays an important role in immune function and improves the absorption of nonheme iron, the form of iron present in plant-based foods.

    Approximately 70%–90% of vitamin C is absorbed at moderate intakes of 30–180 mg a day. At doses above 1 g a day, absorption falls to less than 50% and absorbed, unmetabolized ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine. 

    Insufficient vitamin C intake causes scurvy, which is characterized by fatigue or lassitude, connective tissue weakness, and capillary fragility.

    Cells accumulate vitamin C. The total body content of vitamin C ranges from 300 mg (at near scurvy) to about 2 g.

    • High levels of vitamin C are maintained in cells and tissues, and are highest in leukocytes (white blood cells), eyes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and brain.
    • Relatively low levels of vitamin C are found in extracellular fluids, such as plasma, red blood cells, and saliva.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

Man, do not pride yourself on superiority to animals.

Enterotypes and Microflora

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella. 

  • People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora
  • Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats. 
  • Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.

Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention. 

Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans. 

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