All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Health - the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism, specifically of a human being.

  • Diets, Environmental Sustainability, and Health

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80% increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. 

    If widely adopted, alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce species extinctions, and help prevent diet-related diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet–environment–health trilemma is a global challenge of great environmental and public health importance.

  • Oatmeal and Insulin

    Oats are cheap, and oatmeals might improve your immune system and insulin sensitivity

    Researchers in Chicago carried out a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial of 97 men and women, in which half of the group consumed foods containing oat beta-glucan, while the other half ate control foods. The oat group showed improvements in insulin sensitivity, while the control group was unchanged. (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 2007)

    Researchers in Mannheim, Germany carried out a dietary intervention with 14 patients who had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. The patients were introduced to a diabetes-appropriate diet containing oatmeal during a short hospital stay, then examined again four weeks later. On average, patients achieved a 40% reduction in insulin dosage – and maintained the reduction even after 4 weeks on their own at home. (Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, February 2008)

  • Brazil Nuts and Cholesterol

    4 Brazil nuts a month could be enough to improve cholesterol levels: to lower LDL-c (“bad” cholesterol) and to raise HDL-c ("good"), according to a clinical study in Brazil. HDL removes harmful cholesterol from where it doesn't belong, its high levels reduce the risk for heart disease.

  • Citrus Fruits, Apples and Tomatoes and Cancer

    A reduced risk of several forms of cancer (mainly of digestive tract) was found for high consumption of citrus fruit, apples and tomatoes.

  • Weight Loss with Fruits and Vegetables

    An increase in total fruit intake was associated with a change in weight of -0.53 lb (a weight loss of 0.24 kg), and an increase in total vegetable intake was associated with a weight change of -0.25 lb (a weight loss of 0.11 kg) - for each extra daily serving over a 4 years period.

    133,468 US men and women were followed for up to 24 years. The benefits of increased consumption were strongest for berries, apples or pears, tofu (soy), cauliflower, and cruciferous and green leafy vegetables. Increased satiety with fewer calories could be partly responsible. Obesity is a primary risk factor for many life-shortening health conditions.

  • Viruses

    A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

    There are millions types of viruses, ~ 5,000 virus species have been described in detail. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear. 

    While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, virions, which consist of the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, a protein coat, and in some cases an outer coat of lipids. Virion is about one one-hundredth the size of a bacterium.

  • Genetics

    Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. 

    The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have 20,000 - 25,000 genes. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but less than 1% of genes are slightly different between people. Poplar tree genome suggests more than 45,000 genes.

  • Exercise

    Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid, help improve mental health, maintain steady digestion, regulate fertility health.

  • Body Weight, Obesity, and BMI

    Body weight - person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, pounds, or stones and pounds. Body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

    People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 - overweight. 

    BMI, body mass index - a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. 

    Obesity increases the likelihood of diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

    Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, low levels of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.

    On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

  • Beta-Carotene Supplements and Cancer

    Plant foods have an important preventive influence in a population at high risk for lung cancer. However, persons who use beta-carotene supplements do not benefit from the protective compounds in plant foods.

Carl Sagan

A sharp distinction between humans and “animals” is essential if we are to bend them to our will, make them work for us, wear them, eat them–without any disquieting tinges of guilt or regret. It is unseemly of us, who often behave so unfeeling toward other animals, to contend that only humans can suffer. The behavior of other animals renders such pretensions specious. They are just too much like us.

All Essential Amino Acids

An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism, and must be supplied in diet. 

The 9 amino acids humans cannot synthesize (F V T W M L I K H):

  • phenylalanine
  • valine
  • threonine
  • tryptophan
  • methionine
  • leucine
  • isoleucine
  • lysine
  • histidine

Animal and plant proteins are made up of about 20 common amino acids.

Synthesis of 6 other amino acids - conditionally essential - can be limited under special conditions (R C G Q P Y)arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine.

Dispensable amino acids can be synthesized in the human body, 5 (A D N E S): alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine .

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