All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Health - the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism, specifically of a human being.

  • Whole Fruits for Satiety

    For satiety choose whole fruit over smoothies and juices.

    Solid fruits affect feeling of fullness more than pureed fruit or juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice do not enhance satiety.

  • Saliva Test for Candida Has No Scientific Foundation

    "Candida diet" after a saliva test?

    Brent A. Bauer, M.D.:

    "There are no clinical trials that document the efficacy of a candida cleanse diet for treating any recognized medical condition."

    The saliva water test for candida has no scientific foundation. 

    Stay sceptical even if it is recommended by a doctor (Oz) on TV :)

  • Apples, Lemons and Cranberries against Cancer

    Red Delicious apples, lemons, and cranberries fight cancer better than other fruits. 

  • 300 g More Fruits and Vegetables Reduce Risk of Dying

    A combined fruit and vegetable consumption of more than 569 grams per day reduces the risk of mortality by 10% and delays the risk of mortality by 1.12 years compared to a consumption of less than 249 grams per day.

  • Grapefruit with Caffeine or Drugs

    Grapefruit can cause caffeine and ~60% of commonly prescribed drugs to stay longer in your system

  • Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

    Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

    Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

    In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

    Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

  • Enterotypes and Microflora

    An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella. 

    • People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora
    • Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats. 
    • Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.

    Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention. 

    Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans. 

  • Calcium Intake and Bone Fracture Risk

    With the exception of calcium deficiency rickets in Nigeria, no satisfactory explanation has been found for the apparently low prevalence of osteoporosis in countries on low calcium intakes. On international comparisons on a larger scale, it is very difficult to separate genetic from environmental factors. Osteoporosis was largely a disease of affluent industrialized cultures. Hip fracture prevalence (and by implication osteoporosis) is consequently related to animal protein intake, but also, paradoxically, to calcium intake because of the strong correlation between calcium and protein intakes within and between societies. This could be explained if protein actually increased calcium requirement. 

    Fracture risk has recently been shown to be a function of protein intake in North American women. There is also suggestive evidence that hip fracture rates depend on protein intake, national income, and latitude. Vitamin D deficiency in hip fracture patients in the developed world was established. Such fractures can be successfully prevented with small doses of vitamin D and calcium. It is therefore possible that hip fracture rates may be related to protein intake, vitamin D status, or both.

  • Recommended Calcium Intake from Seeds and Fruits

    Recommended intake for adults, in milligrams per day (recommended calcium allowances based on North American and western European data):

    • Adolescents, 10–18 years - 1300 mg / day
    • Females, 19 years to menopause - 1000 mg / day
    • Females, pregnant women (last trimester) - 1200 mg / day
    • Females, lactating women - 1000 mg / day
    • Females, postmenopause - 1300 mg / day
    • Males, 19–65 years - 1000 mg / day
    • Males, 65+ years - 1300 mg / day

    The calcium requirement of an adult is generally recognized to be the intake required tomaintain calcium balance and thereforeskeletal integrity

    Calcium balance is determined by the relationship between calcium intake and calcium absorption and excretion. Relatively small changes in calcium absorption and excretion can neutralize a high intake or compensate for a low one. 

    A positive calcium balance (net calcium retention) is required throughout growth, particularly during the first 2 years of life and during puberty and adolescence. These age groups therefore constitute populations at risk for calcium deficiency, as do pregnant women (especially in the last trimester), lactating women, postmenopausal women, and, possibly, elderly men. 

  • 30 Minutes of Sunshine Vitamin D Recommendation

    In recommending intakes for vitamin D, it must be recognized that in most locations in the world in a broad band around the equator (latitudes 42°N - 42°S), the most physiologically relevant and efficient way of acquiring vitamin D is to synthesize it endogenously in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol by sun (UV) light exposure.

    In most situations, ~ 30 minutes of skin exposure of the arms and face to sunlight can provide all the daily vitamin D needs of the body.

    Skin synthesis of vitamin D is negatively influenced by factors which may reduce the ability of the skin to provide the total needs of the individual:

    • latitude and season - both influence the amount of UV light reaching the skin;
    • ageingprocess - thinning of the skin reduces the efficiency of this synthetic process;
    • skin pigmentation - the presence of darker pigments in the skin interferes with the synthetic process because UV light cannot reach the appropriate layer of the skin;
    • clothing - virtually complete covering of the skin for medical, social, cultural, or religious reasons leaves insufficient skin exposed to sunlight;
    • sunscreen use - widespread and liberal use of sunscreen, though reducing skin damage by the sun deleteriously affects synthesis of vitamin D.

    Because not all of these problems can be solved in all geographic locations, particularly during winter at latitudes higher than 42° where synthesis is virtually zero, it is recommended that individuals not synthesizing vitamin D should correct their vitamin D status by consuming the amounts of vitamin D. 

    Recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for vitamin D, by group, in milligrams (1/1000 g):

    Infants, children, adolescents, and adults 19–50 years, pregnant and lactating women - mg a day RNI;

    Adults 51–65 years - 10 mg a day RNI

    Adults 65+ years - 15 mg a day RNI

Dhammika Sutta

He should not kill a living being, nor cause it to be killed, nor should he incite another to kill. Do not injure any being, either strong or weak, in the world.

Seeds

Seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperms and angiosperms plants, that now dominate biological niches on land. 

The term "seed" also has a general meaning of anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes (tubers), "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". 

Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.

Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed (acorn, hazelnut).

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