All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Health - the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism, specifically of a human being.

  • Gluten and Other Proteins in Grains

    Based on what is currently known, it's a big leap to attributing autism and other problems to gluten, and an even bigger one to prescribing gluten-free eating as a treatment. It's possible that some people benefit from a gluten-free regimen for reasons that have less to do with gluten and much more to do with the structure involved in planning and sticking to such a strict eating plan.

    In the context of celiac disease, gluten refers to the protein of grains capable of provoking an autoimmune response. Other grains also contain protein, but wheat, barley, rye, and spelt contain varieties that aren't broken down by digestive enzymes:

    • in wheat, the difficult-to-digest protein is gliadin;
    • in rye- secalin; 
    • in barley - hordein.

    In people with celiac disease, when they get absorbed into the walls of the small intestine, the immune system misreads the situation, views them as intruders, and unleashes a furious inflammatory response that damages tissue. 

  • Drink Water to Satisfy Thirst

    The latest recommendations say that we no longer need to worry about drinking specific amounts of water. Instead, we can simply satisfy our thirst with any beverage. As it turns out, there really was no scientific evidence for the 64-ounce daily recommendation that was based on survey data of usual consumption.

    The new guidelines remove the eight-glasses-a-day recommendation, and say healthy adults may use thirst to determine their fluid needs. Exceptions to this rule include anyone with a medical condition requiring fluid control; athletes; and people taking part in prolonged physical activities or whose living conditions are extreme."

  • Vitamins B12, B9, B6 and Heart Disease

    Vitamin B9 (folate, folic acid) works with vitamins B6 and B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients to control blood levels of the amino acidhomocysteine. 

    Elevated homocysteine levels in blood are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although B vitamin supplementation has been proven effective to control homocysteine levels, current data from intervention trials have not shown that lowering homocysteine levels decreases cardiovascular disease risk. Researchers are not sure whether homocysteine is a cause of heart disease or just a marker that indicates someone may have heart disease.

  • Brain Protectors

    Dr. Neal Barnard's "brain protectors" against Alzheimer's: almonds, apricots, beans, chickpeas, blueberries, grapes, leaves and sweet potatoes.

    Avoid saturated and trans fats, excess iron, copper and aluminum.

  • Vegetarian Diets and Heart Disease

    In comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was

    • 20% lower in occasional meat eaters,
    • 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat,
    • 34% lower in lacto-ovo-vegetarians,
    • 26% lower in vegans.

    There were no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in mortality from the other causes of death examined.

  • Illnesses from Contaminated Plant Foods

    When properly cleaned, separated, cooked, and stored to limit contamination, fruits and vegetables safely provide essential nutrients.

    Among foodborne illnesses, leafy vegetables accounted for the most of them. Many of those illnesses (46%) were caused by norovirus.

    A combination of four animal food categories: beef, game, pork, and poultry accounted for fewer illnesses, but for 29% of deaths. 

    Each year ~ 48 million people (1 in 6) get sick from food eaten in the United States. 

  • Fluoride in Water WHO Recommendation

    The World Health Organization’s drinking water quality Guideline Value for fluoride is 1.5 mg / litre (WHO, 1993).

    WHO emphasises that in setting national standards for fluoride it is particularly important to consider climatic conditions, volumes of water intake, and intake of fluoride from other sources (e.g. food and air).

  • Fluoride in Water and Dental or Skeletal Fluorosis

    There is no good evidence of any adverse medical effects associated with the consumption of water with fluoride naturally or artificially added at a concentration of 0.5 – 1.0 mg / litre other than the increase in dental fluorosis. US studies in areas with natural fluoride levels of up to 8 mg / litre found no clinical evidence of harm. However there is clear evidence from India and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur as a result of long-term excessive exposure to fluoride (total intakes of 14 mg fluoride per day), and evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at total intakes above about 6 mg fluoride per day.

  • Fruits and Vegetables for Healthy Bones

    The positive link between bone health and fruit and vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruits and vegetables.

    Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruits and vegetables.

  • Vegan Diet Protects from Cancer

    Vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer in both genders combined, and for female-specific cancers.

Socrates

Thou should eat to live, not live to eat. 

Food Energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles.

Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids, polyols, and ethanol present in the diet. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. 

Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules (J) or in its multiples; the kilojoule (kJ) is most often used for food-related quantities. An older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, is the "food calorie" or kilocalorie (kcal or Cal), equal to 4.184 kilojoules. 

<>Fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of food energy per mass, 37 and 29 kJ/g (8.8 and 6.9 kcal/g), respectively. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4.1 kcal/g). 

Conventional food energy is based on heats of combustion in a bomb calorimeter and corrections that take into consideration the efficiency of digestion and absorption and the production of urine. 

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