All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Health - the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism, specifically of a human being.

  • Fruits and Vegetables May Protect Against Cancers

    In 1991, approximately 200 studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary are reviewed.

    A statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies. For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one‐fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors.

    For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances. Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant. Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies). For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis.

    It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.

  • Nishi Shiki - Nishi Health System by Katsuzo Nishi

    Nishi Shiki was invented in 1927 by Katsuzō Nishi, the chief engineer for the Tokyo subway and an aikido teacher.

    Most of my life I followed the first four rules every day, and substituted the rest with yoga asanas. 

  • Swimming in the Pacific Ocean 3.5K

    Swimming in the Pacific Ocean 3.5K

    Today I did one of my longest swims in open waters: over 3.5 km (3.5K), not counting curves, waves, zigzag swimming to avoid kelp, kayakers, fishermen, birds, and even one big seal.

    This is my 3rd consecutive day swimming in the ocean, ~ 2 km (2K), ~ 2.7 km (2.7K) in two previous days, plus brisk walks up and down the hills (~ 110 m slope) 5 km (5K), 7 km (7K), and 10km (10K) today. Earlier this Summer I swam 3-4 times a week, but not regularly.

  • Swimming in Outdoor Pool

    Swimming in Outdoor Pool

    This September I swam more in a pool then in the ocean! Having a month-ticket to a nice neighboring pool makes it easier, and there was too much seaweed along the coast this year after the first hot weeks of Fall. 

    In the pool I used to make around 60 short lengths (25 yards) first, but then my friend pro-swimmer suggested I should do 66 (one mile, or 1650 yards, or 1.5 kilometres), and I switch to a swimmer's mile a day. I turn like I do in open waters, barely touching the walls and it takes me the whole 45 minutes of non-stop breaststroke to finish :) You may laugh about it, but for somebody whose main sport in youth was piano I am doing pretty nicely.

  • Lucky Sun Hours

    Unexpectedly, the Sun went out, and I was happy all the way to the pool, in it, and back.

    7K Walking (total), 1.5K swimming.

    This is me, Lena, in the bright Californian sunlight after a swim.

  • After a Swim

    This is me on the way back from pool after swimming. This is me, Lena, after the usual 1.5K  swim.

    I've been swimming in an open pool for many weeks now, almost every day, almost the same distance - 1.5 kilometers.

  • Thermic Effect of Food and Negative Calories

    Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

    A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

    1. the total caloric content of the meals,
    2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

    Macronutrients:

    The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

    • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
    • Carbohydratesand fats5-15 %.

    Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

    Insulin

    Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

    Exercise

    The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

    • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
    • and by anaerobic weight training.

    "Negative"  Caloric Balance

    Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

  • My Sleep and What I Do with Fruit

    The second vlog where I point the lens at myself. Just talking. "I eat them" :)

  • Glycotoxins, Advanced Glycation, dAEG and Cooking

    Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), also known as glycotoxins. Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by 10-100 times above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally rich in glycotoxins and prone to formation of new glycotoxins during cooking. Carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains (but also milk) contain relatively few glycotoxins, even after cooking.

    The formation of new glycotoxins during cooking was: 

    • prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine
    • and significantly reducedby
      • cooking with moist heat,
      • using shorter cooking times,
      • cooking at lower temperatures,
      • and by use of acidic ingredients (such as lemon juice or vinegar).

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are a diverse group of highly oxidant compounds with pathogenic significance in diabetes and in several other chronic diseases. Glycotoxins are created through a Maillard or browning reaction - it is a part of normal metabolism, but if excessively high levels of glycotoxins are reached in tissues and the circulation they can become pathogenic, which is related to their ability to promote oxidative stress and inflammation by binding with cell surface receptors or cross-linking with body proteins, altering their structure and function.

    Glycotoxins also exist in foods: they are naturally present in uncooked animal-derived foods, and cooking results in the formation of new AGEs: grilling, broiling, roasting, searing,and frying propagate and accelerate new AGE formation. Recent studies clearly show that dAGEs are absorbed and contribute significantly to the body’s AGE pool.

    Avoidance of dAGEs, glycotoxins in food, helps delay chronic diseases and aging in animals and possibly in human beings.

    Glycotoxins in the diet represent pathogenic compounds that have been linked to the induction and progression of many chronic diseases. High temperature and low moisture consistently and strongly drive their formation in foods. Comparatively brief heating time, low temperatures, high moisture, and/or pre-exposure to an acidified environment are effective strategies to limit new formation in food.

    A significantly reduced intake of dAGEs can be achieved by reducing intake of solid fats, fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and highly processed foods, and by increasing the consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. 

    Low-AGE–generating cooking methods are 

    • poaching,
    • steaming,
    • stewing, 
    • boiling.

    For example, the high AGE content of broiled chicken (5,828 kU/100 g) can be significantly reduced to 1,124 kU/100 g when the same piece of meat is either boiled or stewed. 

    Future studies should continue to investigate the health effects of AGEs and refine recommendations for safe dietary intakes. However, current data support the need for a paradigm shift that acknowledges that how we prepare and process food may be equally important as nutrient composition.

  • Fruit for Lower Blood Pressure and Glucose Levels

    Among Chinese adults, a higher level of fruit consumption was associated with lower blood pressure and blood glucose levels and, largely independent of these and other dietary and nondietary factors, with significantly lower risks of major cardiovascular diseases

George Bernard Shaw

The thought of two thousand people crunching celery at the same time horrified me.

Bacteria and Archaea

Archaea and bacteria (eubacteria) are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or organelles. Archaea have a distinct evolutionary history and biochemistry compared with bacteria.

Archaea - a domain of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes. Archaea can survive in extreme and harsh environments like hot springs, salt lakes, marshlands, oceans, gut of ruminants and humans.

Bacteria - a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Eubacteria are ubiquitous and are found in soil, hot springs, radioactive waste water, Earth's crust, organic matter, bodies of plants and animals, etc.

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