All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Fruits

Botanical fruits - the seed-bearing structures in flowering plants.

Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants (e.g. hazelnut).

  • Common Plant Toxins

    Food plants are known to produce a wide array of chemicals. The levels of many of the more toxic ones have been reduced by hybridisation, but many of these natural toxins are still present at low levels. Eating very large amounts of one type of such foods can possibly be somewhat toxic.

    Common Plant Toxins and Antinutrients

    Toxins (occurrence in plant foods) - possible effect on humans and animals in large amounts:
    • Cyanogenic glycosides (sweet potatoes, stone fruits, lima beans) - gastrointestinal inflammation, inhibition of cellular respiration.
    • Glulcosinolates (canola, mustard, radish, cabbage, peanut, soybean, onion) - impaired metabolism, reduced iodine uptake, decreased protein digestion.
    • Glycoalkaloids (potato, tomato) - depressed central nervous system, kidney inflammation, carcinogenic, birth defects, reduced iron absorption.
    • Gossypol (cottonseed) - reduced iron uptake, spermicidal, carcinogenic.
    • Lectins (most cereals, soybeans, other beans, potatoes) - intestinal inflammation, decreased nutrient absorption.
    • Oxalate (spinach, rhubarb, tomato) - reduces solubility of calcium, iron, and zinc.
    • Phenols (most fruits and vegetables, cereals, soybean, potato, tea, coffee) - destroys thiamine, raises cholesterol, estrogen-mimic.
    • Coumarins (celery, parsley, parsnips, figs) - light-activated carcinogens, skin irritation.
  • Recommended Calcium Intake from Seeds and Fruits

    Recommended intake for adults, in milligrams per day (recommended calcium allowances based on North American and western European data):

    • Adolescents, 10–18 years - 1300 mg / day
    • Females, 19 years to menopause - 1000 mg / day
    • Females, pregnant women (last trimester) - 1200 mg / day
    • Females, lactating women - 1000 mg / day
    • Females, postmenopause - 1300 mg / day
    • Males, 19–65 years - 1000 mg / day
    • Males, 65+ years - 1300 mg / day

    The calcium requirement of an adult is generally recognized to be the intake required tomaintain calcium balance and thereforeskeletal integrity

    Calcium balance is determined by the relationship between calcium intake and calcium absorption and excretion. Relatively small changes in calcium absorption and excretion can neutralize a high intake or compensate for a low one. 

    A positive calcium balance (net calcium retention) is required throughout growth, particularly during the first 2 years of life and during puberty and adolescence. These age groups therefore constitute populations at risk for calcium deficiency, as do pregnant women (especially in the last trimester), lactating women, postmenopausal women, and, possibly, elderly men. 

  • Calcium Rich Fruits and Seeds

    Recommended intake of calcium for adults 19–50 years, in milligrams per day (RDA, recommended dietary allowances based on North American and western European data) is  1000 mga day (1 g).

    Example of calcium plant food sources, fruit and seeds: 

    • Sesame seeds, whole, roasted - 989 mg calcium / 100 g.
    • Chia seeds, dried - 631 mg calcium / 100 g. 
    • Figs, dried - 162 mg calcium / 100 g, ~ 600 g figs for 1000 mg (1 g) calcium
    • Olives, ripe, canned - 94 mg calcium / 100 g.
    • Dates, medjool - 64 mg calcium / 100 g.

  • Vitamin A in Fruits, Vegetables and Seaweed

    Estimated mean requirement and safe level of intake for vitamin A, in Retinol Equivalents (RE) (1 RE = 1 mcg. of retinolor 6 mcg. of beta-carotene):

    • Adolescents, 10–18 years: 330–400 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Adult females, 19–65 years: 270 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 500 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Adult females, 65+ years: 300 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)
    • Males: 300 (mcg RE/day, mean requirement), 600 (mcg RE/day, recommended safe intake)

    Food sources, examples (RE per 100 grams).

    Fresh fruits and raw and cooked fruit vegetables:

    • Mango - 523
    • Apricots - 260 (dry - 730)
    • Cantaloup 322
    • Squash, cooked 714
    • Red pepper, raw - 580

    Root (tubers) and green vegetables, flowers:

    • Carrots, raw - 2574
    • Sweet potato, cooked - 2180
    • Dandelion, raw - 1400
    • Spinach, raw - 674

    Seaweed:

    • Spirulina - 28333
    • Nori - 4895
  • More Fruits and Vegetables, Organic or Not

    Steve Savage, an agricultural scientist:

    Eat more fruit and vegetables! And don’t worry about whether it is organic or not. The fact is, we know less about what is on organic produce than on conventional.

  • Phytochemicals, Colors, Antioxidants

    Thousands of phytochemicals have been identified in the plant foods we eat. The more phytochemical-rich foods eaten, the lower the risk for diseases such as cancer and heart disease. One serving of fruit or vegetables may contain more than 100 different phytochemicals. It is important to eat a variety of raw and cooked vegetables to gain the most benefit from phytochemicals. 

    Phytochemicals contribute to the pigments of fruits and vegetables:

    • Red - lycopene found in tomatoes, watermelon, & pink grapefruit, 
    • Orange - beta carotene found in carrots, mangoes, & cantaloupe, 
    • Yellow - beta cryptothanxin found in pineapple, oranges, & peaches, 
    • Green - indoles found in broccoli, cabbage, & kale, 
    • Purple - anthocyanins found in blueberries, grapes, eggplant & cherries,
    • White - allicin found in garlic, onions, & chives.

    The most well known phytochemicals are the antioxidants. Colorful plant foods are loaded with antioxidants so eating a variety of fruits and vegetables is a great way to protect the body from oxidative damage, and therefore reduces the risk of numerous health conditions.

  • Toxins in Fresh Edible Fruits and Seeds

    Several commercial fruits and vegetables contain small amounts of natural toxins. These natural toxins help protect the plants and create resistance to diseases and certain types of insects. See Secondary Metabolites in Leaves and Stems

    The kernels within the pits of some stone fruits contain a natural toxin cyanogenic glycoside. These fruits include apricots, cherries, peaches, pears, plums and prunes. The flesh of the fruits itself is not toxic. Normally, the presence of cyanogenic glycoside alone is not dangerous. When kernels are chewed cyanogenic glycoside can transform into hydrogen cyanide, poisonous to humans. The lethal dose of cyanide ranges from 0.5 to 3.0 mg per kilogram of body weight. It is not recommended to eat the kernels inside the pits of stone fruits.

    Ackee, akee or achee - Blinghia sapida - is a food staple in many Western Africa, Jamaican and Carribean diets. There are two main varieties, hard and soft ackees, that are available for consumption. Both canned and fresh forms of this fruit are consumed. However, unripe fruit contains natural toxins called hypoglycin that can cause serious health effects. The only part of this fruit that is edible, is the properly harvested and prepared ripe golden flesh around the shiny black seeds. The fruit is poisonous unless ripe and after being opened naturally on the tree.

  • Free Fructose Functions Similar to Fiber

    Fruits contain mostly sugars and fibers, such as pectin, that are extensively fermented in the large intestine. Certain fruits, especially apples and pears, are concentrated in fructose. Apples contain 6% fructose and 3% sucrose and pears are 6.5% fructose and 1.3% sucrose; these values would be consistent in apple and pear juices. Free fructose is poorly absorbed and would function similar to dietary fiber, escaping absorption in the small intestine while being fermented in the large intestine. This results in SCFA production, which is linked to small amounts of energy being absorbed in the colon. 

  • Fruits and Vegetables

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is a focus of research and nutrition education, but there is no universal agreement on the meaning of 'fruits and vegetables'. Foods that require specific instruction include rice, dried beans, potatoes, tomatoes and fruits and vegetables in mixtures and condiments. 

    Fruit and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet, and their sufficient daily consumption could help prevent major diseases. A recently published WHO/FAO report recommends a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegetables per day (excluding potatoes and other starchy tubers) for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, as well as for the prevention and alleviation of several micronutrient deficiencies. 

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables.

    Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. 

    FruitsVegetables

  • Fruits and Vegetables for Healthy Eyes

    Vision: Eating fruits and vegetables can keep your eyes healthy, and may help prevent common aging-related eye diseases - cataracts and macular degeneration - which afflict millions of Americans over age 65. 

John Ruskin

I will not kill or hurt any living creature needlessly, nor destroy any beautiful thing, but will strive to save and comfort all gentle life, and guard and perfect all natural beauty upon the earth. 

Animals

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (or Metazoa). All animals can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs: they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.

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