All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena
Fruitarian Ethics - moral principles that govern a fruitarians' behavior - fruitarian moral code, fruitarian values and value system, ideals, fruitarian standards of behavior, fruitarian virtues and conscience.
- Notes: current
It has been seven years since I tried to find researches or philosophers who might be interested in fruitarianism. Back then I have joined ResearchGate.net but nobody seemed to be involved into anything close to fruitarian diet or ethics. I left this note on my profile (researchgate.net/profile/Lena_Nechet):
Hi, I have joined this site for scientist (not being one myself) to find someone who is interested in researching nutritional aspect of fruitarianism. I hoped someone would be interested in a case study. I gave up, maybe too early. I'll keep this profile for the history, without participation, but you are welcome to contact me directly - thank you!
I am not as eager anymore to offer my time for this purpose, but I will definitely consider serious offers.
Lotus-eaters (lotophagi or lotophaguses, lotophages) were fruitarians, whose primary foods were fruits and flowers of a lotus tree.
Herodotus, in the 5th century BCE, was sure that the lotus-eaters still existed in his day, in coastal Libya:
A promontory jutting out into the sea from the country of the Gindanes is inhabited by the lotus-eaters, who live entirely on the fruit of the lotus-tree. The lotus fruit is about the size of the lentisk berry and in sweetness resembles the date. The lotus-eaters even succeed in obtaining from it a sort of wine.
Polybius identifies the land of the lotus-eaters as the island of Djerba (ancient Meninx), off the coast of Tunisia. Later this identification is supported by Strabo.
According to Greek mythology, lotophagi lived on an island dominated by lotus plants, and its flowers of fruits were narcotic, causing the people to sleep in peaceful apathy.
Vegetarianism is the theory and practice of voluntary non-consumption of the flesh of any animal, including sea animals.
The known history of vegetarianism begins civilizations of ancient India, Egypt, and Greece. Religious groups in Egypt (~ 3,200 BCE - Before Current Era) practiced abstinence from flesh and from wearing animal-derived clothing. The earliest records of vegetarianism as a concept and practice amongst a significant number of people concern the India and Greece civilizations. In both instances the diet was closely connected with the idea of nonviolence toward animals (Ahimsa in India), and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. In the ancient Vedic period vegetarianism was encouraged, but eating some kinds of meat was allowed by law.
A newspaper article about forming of a fruitarian community in California was published in Medford Mail (Medford, Jackson County, Oregon) on Friday, October 16, 1896.
A colony of fruitarians is being formed in Santa Barbara county by W. S. Manning, who subsists solely on uncooked fruit and nuts. They will be located near Los Olivos.
Los Olivos is a census-designated place in the Santa Ynez Valley of Santa Barbara County, California. In 1885 Alden March Boyd planted five thousand olive trees there, and called it Rancho De Los Olivos. The 1880s were a boom time for California.
(Etling, William (2005). Sideways in Neverland: Life in the Santa Ynez Valley. iUniverse.)
The image was found by Anne Osborne.
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Never let your sense of morals prevent you from doing what is right.
Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in a chain is known as the primary structure of a protein. The chains fold up to form complex three dimensional shapes. The chains can fold on themselves locally (secondary structure) and wrap around themselves to form a specific three dimensional shape (tertiary structure).
The secondary / tertiary structure of a folded protein is directly related to its function. For example, enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions. They have binding sites that interact with other molecules. These binding sites are created through the folding of the amino acid chains that gives rise to the three dimensional shape of the enzyme.
Denaturation of proteins involves the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds, the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. Denaturation disrupts the normal sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape.
Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. which may be disrupted.
Proteins can be denatured through exposure to heat or chemicals. Denatured proteins lose their three dimensional structure and thus their function.
Digestion of Proteins and Cooking
Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the acidic environment favors protein denaturation. Denatured proteins are more accessible as substrates for proteolysis than are native proteins. The primary proteolytic enzyme of the stomach is pepsin, a nonspecific protease that is maximally active at pH 2. Thus, pepsin can be active in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, even though other proteins undergo denaturation there.
Heat disrupts hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate so rapidly and violently that the bonds are disrupted.
Foods are cooked to denature the proteins to make it easier for enzymes to digest them. Cooking food denatures some of the proteins in it and makes digestion more efficient. Heating to denature proteins in bacteria and thus destroy the bacteria.