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Short knowledge summaries, facts and citations, related to fruitarianism from scientific internet publications, mass media and other seemingly credible online sources, with links.
Feces (poop) from people or animals is a source of germs like Salmonella, E. coli O157, and norovirus that cause diarrhea, and it can spread some respiratory infections like adenovirus and hand-foot-mouth disease.
These kinds of germs can get onto hands after people use the toilet or change a diaper, but also after handling raw meats that have invisible amounts of animal poop on them.
One gram of human feces (~ the weight of a paper clip) can contain one trillion germs (1,000,000,000,000). Germs can also get onto hands if people touch any object that has germs on it because someone coughed or sneezed on it or was touched by some other contaminated object. When these germs get onto hands and are not washed off, they can be passed from person to person and make people sick.
Handwashing with soap removes germs from hands and thus helps prevent infections because:
- People frequently touch their eyes, nose, and mouth without realizing it - germs can get into the body through the eyes, nose and mouth.
- Germs from unwashed hands can get into foods and drinks while people prepare or consume them - germs can multiply in some types of foods or drinks under certain conditions.
- Germs from unwashed hands can be transferred t objects like table tops or toys - and from there to other people.
Removing germs through handwashing therefore helps prevent diarrhea and respiratory infections and may even help prevent skin and eye infections.
Teaching people about handwashing helps them and their communities stay healthy:
- Reduces the number of people who get sick with diarrhea by 31%,
- Reduces diarrheal illness in people with weakened immune systems by 58%,
- Reduces colds in the general population by 16-21%.
- Category: Data
Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. Failing to sufficiently wash one’s hands contributes to ~ 50% of all foodborne illness outbreaks. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23%. Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8%. The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone.
- Only 5% of people who used the bathroom washed their hands long enough to kill the germs that can cause infections (for only 6 seconds on average),
- 33% did not use soap,
- 10% did not wash their hands at all,
- 50% of men used soap, compared with 78% of women.
Washing hands under running water:
- Wet your hands with clean water, warm or cold, apply soap.
- Lather your hands by rubbing them together. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
- Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds.
- Rinse your hands well.
- Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them.
When to wash hands:
- Before, during, and after preparing food.
- Before eating food.
- After using the toilet.
- After touching garbage.
- After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
- Before and after caring for someone who is sick.
- Before and after treating a cut or wound.
- After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has used the toilet.
- After touching an animal, animal feed, or animal waste.
- After handling pet food or pet treats.
- Category: Data
Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements.
Plant protein foods contribute ~ 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis, and ~ 32% in the North American region.
- Category: Data
Protein quantity plant-based diets is shown not to be an issue. Inadequate amino acid supply is not an issue with most cereal-based diets.
When used to score plant-based diets in India, no marked deficiencies are identified. All regions score > 1 for adults, whilst for children scores range from > 1, (Tamil Nadhu) from 6 months of age to 0.78 (West Bengal), rising to 0.9 in the 2-5 year old, consistent with reports that high-lysine maize supports similar weight and height growth to that of casein.
Digestibility is identified as a problem for some cereals (millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.)) and generally is poorly understood.
A new maintenance requirement pattern is developed, with higher values than those of Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization / United Nations University (1985) but lower values than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pattern (Young et al. 1989).
Calculations of age-related amino acid requirements are based on most recent estimates of human growth and maintenance protein requirements, a tissue amino acid pattern and the new maintenance amino acid pattern. These values appear valid when used to score plant proteins, since they indicate values similar to or less than the biological value measured directly in young children.
- Category: Data
On July 7, 2012, a prominent international group of scientists - cognitive neuroscientists, neuropharmacologists, neurophysiologists, neuroanatomists and computational neuroscientists - gathered at The University of Cambridge to reassess the neurobiological substrates of conscious experience and related behaviors in human and non-human animals.
The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness:
The absence of a neocortex does not appear to preclude an organism from experiencing affective states. Convergent evidence indicates that non-human animals have the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological substrates of conscious states along with the capacity to exhibit intentional behaviors. Consequently, the weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Nonhuman animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these neurological substrates.
- Category: Data
Aggregated definitions of terms used on Fruitarian's Network. A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term - a word, a phrase, or a set of other symbols.
Relevant quotes - statements and thoughts relevant to fruitarianism by various people.
Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.