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Short knowledge summaries, facts and citations, related to fruitarianism from scientific internet publications, mass media and other seemingly credible online sources, with links

Supplementation with flaxseed oil led to significant decreases in sensitivity, transepidermal water loss, skin roughness and scaling. Smoothness and hydration were increased. The ratio of n-6/n-3 dietary fatty acids in plasma decreased.

Upon supplementation with safflower seed oil, only a significant improvement in skin roughness and hydration was observed; however, the effects were less pronounced and determined at a later point in time than with flaxseed oil. The plasma n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio increased.

Intestinal microbiota may contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and cardiovascular disease risk. 

The study tested the carnitine and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels - a metabolite the researchers previously linked in a 2011 study to the promotion of atherosclerosis in humans - of omnivores, vegans and vegetarians, and examined the clinical data of 2,595 patients undergoing elective cardiac evaluations. The research finds that a diet high in carnitine promotes the growth of the bacteria that metabolize carnitine, compounding the problem by producing even more of the artery-clogging TMAO. 

Stanley Hazen, M.D., Ph.D.:

Carnitine metabolism suggests a new way to help explain why a diet rich in red meat promotes atherosclerosis.

The bacteria living in our digestive tracts are dictated by our long-term dietary patterns. A diet high in carnitine actually shifts our gut microbe composition to those that like carnitine, making meat eaters even more susceptible to forming TMAO and its artery-clogging effects. Meanwhile, vegans and vegetarians have a significantly reduced capacity to synthesize TMAO from carnitine, which may explain the cardiovascular health benefits of these diets.

Carnitine is naturally occurring in red meats, including beef, venison, lamb, mutton, duck, and pork. It is also a dietary supplement available in pill form and a common ingredient in energy drinks

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for amino acids (protein) for healthy adults 19 y and older, mg/kg/day:

  • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): average, estimated to meet the requirements of 50%.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average, sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all.
Amino Acids EAR RDA
phenylalanine + tyrosine 27 33
valine 19 24
threonine 16 20
tryptophan 4 5
methionine + cysteine 15 19
leucine 34 42
isoleucine 15 19
lysine 31 38
histidine 11 14

A child’s right to adequate and appropriate nutrition is stipulated under Article 6 and 24 of the Convention on the Right’s of the Child. 

In 2010, an estimated 171 million children (167 million of whom live in developing countries) were stunted. Children who are stunted are at a greater risk of having difficulty learning, playing, engaging in normal childhood activities and being productive members of society later in life. Undernourished children are also more susceptible to frequent and repeated disease and illness due to a weakened immune response, as well as at a greater risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life.

A child’s nutritional future begins with the mother’s nutritional status in adolescence and during pregnancy.

Because the system for disposal of excess nitrogen is efficient, protein intakes moderately above requirement are believed to be safe.

Brenner et al. (1982) postulated that excess protein intake accelerates the processes that lead to renal glomerular sclerosis, a common phenomenon of aging. There is supportive evidence from studies in animals, but not in humans on this point. Urinary calcium excretion increases with increased protein intake if phosphorus intake is constant. If phosphorus intake increases with protein intake, as it does in U.S. diets, the effect of protein is minimized.

Habitual intakes of protein in the United States are substantially above the requirement, and although there is no firm evidence that these intake levels are harmful, it has been deemed prudent to maintain an upper bound of no more than twice the RDA for protein.

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Mahatma Gandhi

The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

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