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Data

Short knowledge summaries, facts and citations, related to fruitarianism from scientific internet publications, mass media and other seemingly credible online sources, with links

Statistically significant protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was found in 128 of 156 dietary studies that examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cancers of the lung, colon, breast, cervix, esophagus, oral cavity, stomach, bladder, pancreas, and ovary.

For most cancer sites, persons with low fruit and vegetable intake (at least the lower one-fourth of the population) experience about twice the risk of cancer compared with those with high intake, even after control for potentially confounding factors:

  • For lung cancer, significant protection was found in 24 of 25 studies after control for smoking in most instances.
  • Fruits, in particular, were significantly protective in cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and larynx, for which 28 of 29 studies were significant.
  • Strong evidence of a protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption was seen in cancers of the pancreas and stomach (26 of 30 studies), as well as in colorectal and bladder cancers (23 of 38 studies).
  • For cancers of the cervix, ovary, and endometrium, a significant protective effect was shown in 11 of 13 studies, and for breast cancer a protective effect was found to be strong and consistent in a meta analysis.

It would appear that major public health benefits could be achieved by substantially increasing consumption of these foods.

Diets rich in fruit and vegetables have been recommended for preventing cancer. 

A significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables.

Breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit. The risk reduction is significant for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit.

Bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables. 

Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, represent 5% of the US population, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, 2%.

Vegetarian diets confer protection against

  • cardiovascular diseases,
  • cardiometabolic risk factors,
  • some cancers, 
  • total mortality.

Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for

  • obesity,
  • hypertension,
  • type-2 diabetes, 
  • cardiovascular mortality.

Males experience greater health benefits than females. 

The high-fat meals (42% of energy from fat) caused, in contrast to the low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat), considerable increases in plasma triglycerides. The five different fat qualities - rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, or butter - caused similar postprandial increases in plasma triglycerides. These findings indicate that high-fat meals may be prothrombotic, irrespective of their fatty acid composition

Case-control studies overall support a significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables.

Breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit.

Bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables.

The overall relative risk estimates from cohort studies suggest a protective effect of both fruit and vegetables for most cancer sites considered, but the risk reduction is significant only for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit.

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