All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

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energy

  • Thermic Effect of Food and Negative Calories

    Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

    A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

    1. the total caloric content of the meals,
    2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

    Macronutrients:

    The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

    • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
    • Carbohydratesand fats5-15 %.

    Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

    Insulin

    Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

    Exercise

    The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

    • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
    • and by anaerobic weight training.

    "Negative"  Caloric Balance

    Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

  • To Chef AJ about Calories in Non-Starchy Vegetables

    Negative-Calorie Fruits? No!

    In a presentation published on youtube, Chef AJ, who is certified in "Plant-Based Nutrition" from Cornell University,  describes the concept of calorie density, promoting weight loss. She claims that you can eat as many of non-sweet fruit and other low in starch vegetables you want, because: 

    "...their mostly waner, and fiber and nutrients, you know, you actually spend more calories, chewing non-starchy vegetables and digesting them than in the calories."

    My response: 

    Why every lecture like this must contain some nonsense? One hour chewing burns only ~10 food calories!

    There is no scientific evidence to show that any vegetables or fruits have a zero or negative caloric impact

    Celery has a thermic effect - "the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage" - of ~ 8%, much less than the 100% or more required for a food to have "negative calories". A large piece of celery provides almost 10 calories, but the body expends less than one calorie processing it.

    Proteins require the most energy to digest but their a thermic effect is 20%–30% only. A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

    Chef AJ replied through her profile Wight Loss Wednesday:

    After I provided a link to this article with explanation to a viewer who replied to me with ""chewing and digesting".. digestion does not come for free," Chef AJ responded to my comment as well. First she said: 

    I was talking about BMR.

    Then she shared this link:

    http://lethow.com/health/negative-calorie-foods/

    In this article they just repeat the false information: 

    Consuming Negative calorie foods will burn more calories in chewing and digestion process  as compared to the calories they provide for the body. Eating these foods will create a calorie-deficit in the body, ultimately helps in weight loss.

    Towards the end they admit that:

    Our body uses around 10-15% of calories of the food we eat, in order to digest them. Our body also needs energy to break down the food  compound and absorb carbohydrates, proteins, minerals fats, and other nutrients. Our body generates energy from the food we intake.

    But they also imply that much more energy is burned by absorption of food. After mechanical and chemical digestion, which require most energy to break the pieces and molecules of food down, they assume or try to make you believe that absorption through the small intestine into the blood would take more than 90% of the calories of these foods for the total to be negative! There is no known scientific foundation for such assumptions. It even goes against common sense to think that the mere absorption of broken down nutrients would require ~10 times more energy than actual breaking down, or to imagine that we could survive with such inefficient bodies. Even if this were true, nutrients from other foods would require similar amounts of energy to be absorbed. 

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the minimal rate of energy expenditure, usually per day or hour. The measurement requires a strict set of criteria to be met, which include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, and in the post-absorptive state (after the food is digested). I do not know what exactly Chef AJ was pointing towards here. 

    They also list most non-starchy vegetables and fruits as calorie-negative! How irresponsible. The site, which calls itself "the ultimate guide," does not list any links to their sources, of course. They don't even have about pare or sign their articles. This site looks like an advertisement project, with the content created entirely by paid-per-word copywriters.

    As a fruitarian whose energy comes primarily from those fruits, I would be dead not only by now, but after any couple of month period in the last 20+ years. 

    These are the fruits and vegetables they list:

    Fruits Vegetables Spices 

    Apples

    Apricots

    Blackberries

    Cantaloupes

    Cranberries

    Grapefruit

    Guava

    Lemons

    Oranges

    Papayas

    Peaches

    Pineapples

    Plums

    Prunes

    Raspberries

    Strawberries

    Tangerines

    Tomatoes

    Watermelon

    Asparagus

    Aubergine

    Beets

    Broccoli

    Cabbage

    Carrots

    Cauliflower

    Celery

    Chicory

    Cress

    Cucumbers

    Dandelion

    Endive

    Fennel

    Green beans

    Lettuce

    Onions

    Radishes

    Spinach

    Turnip

    Zucchini  

    Anise

    Cayenne

    Chili peppers

    Cinnamon

    Cloves

    Coriander/Cilantro

    Cumin

    Dill

    Fennel seeds

    Flax seeds

    Garden cress

    Garlic

    Ginger

    Parsley

    Mustard seeds

    Watercress

    Please, don't believe just anyone on the internet, always check the information you rely upon. 

  • Nutrient-Dense Food

    Nutrient-dense foods are foods that have a lot of nutrients but relatively few calories.

    Nutrient-dense foods and beverages contain: vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other beneficial substances that may have positive health effects.

    They are also naturally lean or low in saturated fat, and have little or no added saturated fat, sugars, refined starches, and sodium.

    Examples of nutrient dense foods are: beans and peas, fresh fruit, unsalted nuts and seeds, vegetables, whole grains - most fruitarian foods are nutrient-dense.

  • Overnutrition

    Overnutrition, a type of malnutrition, is emerging with rates of obesity and related chronic diseases associated with urbanisation, aging populations, technological development and globalisation of food supplies and industry. Billions of dollars are spent annually by the food industry to promote the consumption of highly refined, high-calorie foods with little or no nutritional value. 

    At least 35 million overweight children are living in developing countries and 8 million in developed countries. Children are increasingly exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods which tend to be cheaper than healthy foods. General imbalance in energy intake compared to physical activity levels is driving the obesity epidemic. In industrialised countries, child obesity risk is associated with lower household income, women with less education, and single parent households.

    Obesity is increasingly prevalent among adolescent girls and women, as access to a greater quantity of inexpensive, tasty, and convenient foods increases. 

    Taxation on high-calorie, low-nutrition foods can play a significant role in reducing the consumption of such products. Population-wide weight-control campaigns that raise awareness among medical staff, policy-makers and the public at large can also help to reduce obesity. Particularly important is the promotion of health literacy. Additional measures include restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy foods and sugary drinks to children, and controls on the use of misleading health and nutrition claims; mandatory front-of-pack food labelling helps consumers to identify healthier options. 

  • Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

    Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

    Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

    In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

    Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

  • Food Energy

    Food energy is chemical energy that animals derive from their food and molecular oxygen through the process of cellular respiration. Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles.

    Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids, polyols, and ethanol present in the diet. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. 

    Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules (J) or in its multiples; the kilojoule (kJ) is most often used for food-related quantities. An older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, is the "food calorie" or kilocalorie (kcal or Cal), equal to 4.184 kilojoules. 

    <>Fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of food energy per mass, 37 and 29 kJ/g (8.8 and 6.9 kcal/g), respectively. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4.1 kcal/g). 

    Conventional food energy is based on heats of combustion in a bomb calorimeter and corrections that take into consideration the efficiency of digestion and absorption and the production of urine. 

  • Free Fructose Functions Similar to Fiber

    Fruits contain mostly sugars and fibers, such as pectin, that are extensively fermented in the large intestine. Certain fruits, especially apples and pears, are concentrated in fructose. Apples contain 6% fructose and 3% sucrose and pears are 6.5% fructose and 1.3% sucrose; these values would be consistent in apple and pear juices. Free fructose is poorly absorbed and would function similar to dietary fiber, escaping absorption in the small intestine while being fermented in the large intestine. This results in SCFA production, which is linked to small amounts of energy being absorbed in the colon. 

  • WHO on Protein and Amino Acid Requirements

    Protein Requirement Recommendation

    The requirement indicated by the meta-analysis (a median requirement of 105 mg nitrogen/kg per day or 0.66 g/kg per day of protein) can be accepted as the best estimate of a population average requirement for healthy adults.

    General recommendation

    For adults, the protein requirement per kg body weight is considered to be the same for both sexes, at all ages, and for all body weights within the acceptable range. The value accepted for the safe level of intake is 0.83 g/kg per day, for proteins with a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score value of 1.0. No safe upper limit has been identified... (p. 242)

    Range Body weight Safe level of protein intake (score 1.0)
    From 40 kg 33 g per day
    To 80 kg 66 gper day

Stanley Milgram

The disappearance of a sense of responsibility is the most far-reaching consequence of submission to authority.

Amino Acids

Protein plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes and amino acids are the building blocks of it.

A large proportion of our cells, muscles and tissue is made up of amino acids - 20% Of the human body is made up of protein. 

~500 Amino acids are known, 20 appear in the genetic code, 9 are essential for humans because they cannot be created from other compounds by the human body, and must be taken from food.

Amino acids carry out many important bodily functions: 

  • give cells their structure;
  • play a key role in the transport and the storage of nutrients;
  • have an influence on the function of organs, glands, tendons and arteries;
  • essential for healing wounds and repairing tissue; 
  • important removal of waste deposits.

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