All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

economics

  • Organic Farming Is Not a Universal Solition

    For many fruits, organic farming was nearly as productive as conventional farming (an average difference of just 3%). Cereals and veggies are where organic farming got trashed, with yields averaging 26 and 33% lower than conventional agriculture.

    So the data suggests that switching to organic farming for specific crops like various fruits might be a smart move; the slight loss in productivity would be a small price to pay for the environmental benefit. Yet for other crops like corn, wheat and soybeans, organic farming would cut yields substantially. You could argue we grow more corn than we need, of course, because a lot of our corn goes to ethanol (thanks, Congress) and cattle (which is a crazy-inefficient use of corn, BTW — the ratio of corn consumed to beef produced is terrible). But the fact remains that organic farming is not the universal solution its advocates claim it to be. It looks like a good solution for a variety of specific crops, but we probably can’t do all our farming organically, because for many other crops it just doesn’t have anywhere near equivalent productivity.

  • Thich Nhat Hanh

    If we stop consuming, they will stop producing.

  • 70 Percent Antibiotics in US are for Farm Animals

    70% Of all antibiotics sold in the US are used for farm animals. Sales of antibiotics for agriculture climbed 16% in 3 years between 2009 and 2012.

  • Fruits and Vegetables Can Save Lives and Money

    If Americans ate just one more serving of fruits or vegetables per day, this would save more than 30,000 lives and $5 billion in medical costs each year.

    If Americans were to follow current USDA recommendations for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, those numbers would go up to more than 127,000 lives and $17 billion saved.

    The increased longevity that would result if Americans ate the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables is worth over $11 trillion.

  • GMOs Are Not More Risky

    Europe: Biotechnology and GMOs are not per se more risky than e.g. conventional plant breeding technologies - a conclusion to be drawn from the efforts of more than 130 research projects in 25 years.

  • 30 Million Trees Yearly Die for USA Books

    Use libraries and borrow books, buy used and e-books! Why? 


    Each year ~ 30 million trees are used to make books sold in US, many of which are sourced from endangered forests.
    U.S. book industry uses less than 10% recycled fiber for its paper (some publishers are better than others).

  • Genetically Modified Organisms, GMO

    genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism). GMOs are used to produce medications and genetically modified foods, and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. 

    A more specifically defined type of GMO is a "transgenic organism." This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. Typically GMOs are organisms whose genetic makeup has been altered without the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism.

  • UN Urges Global Move to Vegan Diet

    United Nations report 2010: A global shift towards a vegan diet is vital to save the world from hunger, fuel poverty, and the worst impacts of climate change.

    Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.

  • Habitat Loss to Pasture and Feed Crops

    Species-rich habitats are being converted to pasture and feed crops as the human appetite for meat swells. By 2050, given current trends, 15 countries, which harbor the largest number of species will likely increase the lands used for livestock production by 30%-50%—some 3,000,000 square kilometers.
    The habitat loss is so great that it will cause more extinctions than any other factor, particularly when coupled with other deleterious effects of livestock production, including climate change and pollution. Many species will be lost.

  • Obesity and Global Food Supply

    Jonathan C.K. Wells:

    "Obesity, like under-nutrition, is thus fundamentally a state of malnutrition, in each case promoted by powerful profit-led manipulations of the global supply and quality of food."

    The global obesity epidemic remains poorly understood, partly because it has emerged alongside persisting under-nutrition in many populations. As the limiting factor for economic growth switched to consumption, capitalism has increasingly driven consumer behavior inducing widespread over-nutrition. 

Plutarch

But for the sake of some little mouthful of flesh we deprive a soul of the sun and light, and of that proportion of life and time it had been born into the world to enjoy.

Protein Structure, Cooked and Denatured Proteins

Proteins are chains of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in a chain is known as the primary structure of a protein. The chains fold up to form complex three dimensional shapes. The chains can fold on themselves locally (secondary structure) and wrap around themselves to form a specific three dimensional shape (tertiary structure).

The secondary / tertiary structure of a folded protein is directly related to its function. For example, enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions. They have binding sites that interact with other molecules. These binding sites are created through the folding of the amino acid chains that gives rise to the three dimensional shape of the enzyme.

Denatured Protein

Denaturation of proteins involves the disruption and possible destruction of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds, the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. Denaturation disrupts the normal sheets in a protein and uncoils it into a random shape.

Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. which may be disrupted. 

Proteins can be denatured through exposure to heat or chemicals. Denatured proteins lose their three dimensional structure and thus their function. 

Digestion of Proteins and Cooking

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the acidic environment favors protein denaturation. Denatured proteins are more accessible as substrates for proteolysis than are native proteins. The primary proteolytic enzyme of the stomach is pepsin, a nonspecific protease that is maximally active at pH 2. Thus, pepsin can be active in the highly acidic environment of the stomach, even though other proteins undergo denaturation there.

Heat disrupts hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate so rapidly and violently that the bonds are disrupted

Foods are cooked to denature the proteins to make it easier for enzymes to digest them. Cooking food denatures some of the proteins in it and makes digestion more efficient. Heating to denature proteins in bacteria and thus destroy the bacteria.

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