All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Diet

Diet - providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth, choice of nutrition.

  • Microflora Differences in European and African Village Children

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown.

    Significant differences were found in gut microbiota between European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso, , where the diet is high in fiber content, and is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture.

    Burkina Faso children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes, and a unique abundance of bacteria from the genus Prevotella and Xylanibacter, completely lacking in the EU children. Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in Burkina Faso children.

    In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids in Burkina Faso children. 

    Gut microbiota might have coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet, allowing to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. 

  • Calcium Requirement and Animal Protein

    One study found that 0.85 mg of calcium was lost for each gram (1 g) of protein in the diet. A meta-analysis of 16 studies in 154 adult humans on protein intakes up to 200 g found that 1.2 mg of calcium was lost in the urine for every 1g rise in dietary protein. A small but more focussed study showed a rise of 40 mg in urinary calcium when dietary animal protein was raised from 40 to 80 g. Urinary calcium to dietary protein ratio is 1 mg to 1g. The empirical observation that each 1 g of protein results in 1 mg of calcium in the urine agrees very well with the phosphorus content of animal protein (about 1 percent by weight).

    This means that a 40 g reduction in animal protein intake from 60 to 20 g would reduce calcium requirement by the same amount as a 2.3 g reduction in dietary sodium, i.e. from 840 to 600 mg

    How animal protein exerts its effect on calcium excretion is not fully understood. 

  • Toxic Acrylamide in Cooked Plant Foods

    In 2010, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) concluded that acrylamide is a human health concern. Certain doses of acrylamide are toxic to animals and humans.

    Although acrylamide has known toxic effects on the nervous system and on fertility, the 2002 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded the intake level required to observe neuropathy (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day) was 500 times higher than the average dietary intake of acrylamide (1 μg/kg body weight/day). For effects on fertility, the level is 2,000 times higher than the average intake.

    Acrylamide is a neurotoxin by either oral (in animals) or inhalation exposure (in humans and in animals). Toxic effects are central and peripheral neuropathy causing drowsiness, hallucinations, distal numbness, and ataxia. Recovery is possible after cessation of exposure. 

    Acrylamide is typically found in plant-based foods cooked with high heat (e.g., frying, roasting, and baking), not raw plant-based foods or foods cooked by steaming or boiling (below 120 degrees Celsius / 248 Fahrenheit). Potato chips and French fries were found to contain higher levels of acrylamide compared with other foods.

    The European Chemical Agency added acrylamide to the list of substances of very high concern in March 2010.

    Acrylamide is known to causecancer in animals. It is not clear, as of 2016, whether acrylamide consumption increases people's risk of developing cancer. 

  • Calcium Rich Fruits and Seeds

    Recommended intake of calcium for adults 19–50 years, in milligrams per day (RDA, recommended dietary allowances based on North American and western European data) is  1000 mga day (1 g).

    Example of calcium plant food sources, fruit and seeds: 

    • Sesame seeds, whole, roasted - 989 mg calcium / 100 g.
    • Chia seeds, dried - 631 mg calcium / 100 g. 
    • Figs, dried - 162 mg calcium / 100 g, ~ 600 g figs for 1000 mg (1 g) calcium
    • Olives, ripe, canned - 94 mg calcium / 100 g.
    • Dates, medjool - 64 mg calcium / 100 g.

  • Nori is the Best Known Seaweed Source of B12

    Vitamin B(12) concentrations of dried green (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple (Porphyra sp.) lavers nori were determined, in micrograms: 

    • green nori: 64 - 69 mcg per 100 g of dry weight,
    • purple nori: 32 - 25 mcg per 100 g of dry weight.

    Non-coenzyme forms (hydroxo and cyano forms) of vitamin B12 predominate in both. 

    Recommended dietary amounts (RDAs) for cobalamin, B12, are 2.4 mcg (micrograms) daily, one can cover it with 4 g of dry green nori. 

    The dried lavers contained lesser amounts of dietary iodine (~ 4-6 mg per 100 g of dry weight) relative to other seaweeds, suggesting that excessive intake of the dried lavers is unlikely to result in harmful intake of iodine.

    These results indicate that the nori are the best source of vitamin B12 among edible seaweeds, especially for strict vegetarians (vegans).

  • Tarahumara Runners on Corn and Beans Diet

    The Rarámuri or Tarahumara are a Native American people of northwestern Mexico who are renowned for their long-distance running ability. Rarámuri, means "runners on foot" or "those who run fast". Staple crops are corn and beans.

    Frugan (fruitarian) runners Tarahumara were described by Ruth Heidrich, Ph.D., a runner for 36 years and vegan for 21 years, who won over 800 age-group first place trophies in runs, triathlons, biathlons, and track and field, and completed the Ironman Triathlon 6 times, run 67 marathons, and holds a number of fitness records, following a diet similar to the Tarahumara:

    "...Their only food is tesguino, milled corn mixed with water to a drinkable consistency. This is the mainstay (75%) of Tarahumara diet, with the remaining food being beans and squash. They also take the milled corn as their sole food when traveling, since it is lightweight, doesn't spoil, and is easily prepared by mixing it with water in a half gourd they carry with them. This gives them great stamina and, more importantly, none of them appeared to be protein or calcium deficient with this plant-based diet."

    The Tarahumara runners are legendary for their 24-, 36-, even 72-hour long runs. In the Leadville 100-miler in 1991, the Tarahumara took first, second, and fourth places. 

  • Diet of Champion Meagan Duhamel

    Canadian champion figure skater Meagan Duhamel, an olympian medalist:

    Well, I eat an entirely plant-based diet. 

    I believe in a whole-foods diet filled with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, ancient grains, proteins and healthy fatty acids. Green vegetables, chia seeds, hemp seeds, flax seeds, ancient grains, avocado, quinoa, tempeh, beans and fruits are a main source of fuel.

  • New Eating Habit in Three Weeks or a Year

    If you like to establish new eating habits, give yourself time. Habits take to form anywhere from 18 days up to 254 days. Missing a single day did not reduce the chance of forming a habit. 

    Missing one opportunity to perform the behaviour did not materially affect the habit formation process. 

  • Socrates

    Thou should eat to live, not live to eat. 

  • Pythagoras

    As long as Man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace.

Charles Darwin

There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher animals in their mental faculties . . . The lower animals, like man, manifestly feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery.

Trees

 A tree is a plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years.

A variety of plant species have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches to compete for sunlight. In more general sense, tall palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. The roots branch out under the ground to anchor the tree and to extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches usually bear leaves, which capture light. 

Trees reduce erosion and moderate the climate. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Some trees provide edible fruit

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