All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Diet

Diet - providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth, choice of nutrition.

  • Glycotoxins, Advanced Glycation, dAEG and Cooking

    Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), also known as glycotoxins. Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by 10-100 times above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally rich in glycotoxins and prone to formation of new glycotoxins during cooking. Carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains (but also milk) contain relatively few glycotoxins, even after cooking.

    The formation of new glycotoxins during cooking was: 

    • prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine
    • and significantly reducedby
      • cooking with moist heat,
      • using shorter cooking times,
      • cooking at lower temperatures,
      • and by use of acidic ingredients (such as lemon juice or vinegar).

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are a diverse group of highly oxidant compounds with pathogenic significance in diabetes and in several other chronic diseases. Glycotoxins are created through a Maillard or browning reaction - it is a part of normal metabolism, but if excessively high levels of glycotoxins are reached in tissues and the circulation they can become pathogenic, which is related to their ability to promote oxidative stress and inflammation by binding with cell surface receptors or cross-linking with body proteins, altering their structure and function.

    Glycotoxins also exist in foods: they are naturally present in uncooked animal-derived foods, and cooking results in the formation of new AGEs: grilling, broiling, roasting, searing,and frying propagate and accelerate new AGE formation. Recent studies clearly show that dAGEs are absorbed and contribute significantly to the body’s AGE pool.

    Avoidance of dAGEs, glycotoxins in food, helps delay chronic diseases and aging in animals and possibly in human beings.

    Glycotoxins in the diet represent pathogenic compounds that have been linked to the induction and progression of many chronic diseases. High temperature and low moisture consistently and strongly drive their formation in foods. Comparatively brief heating time, low temperatures, high moisture, and/or pre-exposure to an acidified environment are effective strategies to limit new formation in food.

    A significantly reduced intake of dAGEs can be achieved by reducing intake of solid fats, fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and highly processed foods, and by increasing the consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. 

    Low-AGE–generating cooking methods are 

    • poaching,
    • steaming,
    • stewing, 
    • boiling.

    For example, the high AGE content of broiled chicken (5,828 kU/100 g) can be significantly reduced to 1,124 kU/100 g when the same piece of meat is either boiled or stewed. 

    Future studies should continue to investigate the health effects of AGEs and refine recommendations for safe dietary intakes. However, current data support the need for a paradigm shift that acknowledges that how we prepare and process food may be equally important as nutrient composition.

  • Seeds in Fruitarian Diet?

    Some fruitarians maintain that fruitarian diet should include only fruit flesh, which usually surrounds seeds of the common fruits. They insist on nver including seeds, because eating them would mean the same as destroying plants (or their "babies").

    I must disagree

    1. First, seeds are not developed organisms. The main premise of fruitarianism is that complex organisms as plants deserve our ethical consideration, and most seeds are just dormant plant matter: it would be highly impractical and even immoral to treat them as individuals. 
    2. Second, they are produced by plants in excess, not all require to go through our digestive system, and only few can develop into organisms due to shortage of resources on this planet.
    3. Third, fruitarianism is about fruits is botanical sense, not culinary or common.
  • Plant Protein Balance

    Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. 

    Plant protein foods contribute ~ 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis, and ~ 32% in the North American region.

  • Amino Acids in Fruits and Seeds

    This is amazing how many times I was asked: where do you get your protein? Many people seem to think that there is no protein in fruit. Let's look into it. 

    1. How much protein one needs? ↓
    2. How much protein is in fruit and seeds? ↓
    3. Is that the right protein? ↓
  • 55 Questions from Fruitarian

    For the Fruitarian Interviews project, I have composed 55 questions in 5 sections: Introduction (10), Ethics (30), Lifestyle (5), Diet (5), Conclusions (5). Most of them are ethical questions, not the ethical dilemmas though - I tend to find those a bit too artificial and restrictive. Some questions are hard (for me anyway), sorry for that.

    My goal is to gather answers to the same questions from various interesting people, so we all could learn about different perspectives on these topics and gather ideas for our own development and an open discussion.

    If you want to participate, please send me your reasons, and follow these instructions upon agreement.

  • Protection with Vegetarian and Vegan Diets

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, represent 5% of the US population, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, 2%.

    Vegetarian diets confer protection against

    • cardiovascular diseases,
    • cardiometabolic risk factors,
    • some cancers, 
    • total mortality.

    Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for

    • obesity,
    • hypertension,
    • type-2 diabetes, 
    • cardiovascular mortality.

    Males experience greater health benefits than females. 

  • Richard Dawkins

    I'd like everybody to be a vegetarian... In 100 or 200 years time, we may look back on the way we treated animals today as something like we today look back on the way our forefathers treated slaves.

  • Fruitarians Are Not Alike

    In a long discussion on youtube that started with my comment (it  was later deleted), in which I was objecting some points the author of the video made, on one point I responded to another person, who asked me about fruitarianism after I mentioned it:

    The one thing I should to tell you here is that fruitarians are not all alike, there are not many of them (us) but they all have their unique set of reasons to follow this lifestyle. For example, my reasons developed from ethical, aesthetic and habitual considerations, many fruitarians are religiously driven (I am a lifelong atheist myself), many think that raw food is the answer to all health challenges and eat lots of fruit as a part of the diet (I am not a raw-foodie), some do not even consume seeds, and subset of this group believe that seeds are just like babies; some eat leaves, some don't, not all fruitarians are vegans, etc. The only thing I found similar among all fruitarians I know, is that the biggest part of their diet (~75%) is fruit, usually fresh, and there are some studies already made that could be used in support of such choice. 

    I hope it gives you some idea about the absence of uniformity in fruitarianism, and why discussing it here is not preferable. Also, I am obviously not able to speak neither for all fruitarians, nor for all vegans.

  • Fruitarian Food Sources of Zinc

    I composed two lists with a few examples of the fruitarian food sources of zinc: fruits, seeds, seaweeds and mushrooms. You can compare the amounts of zinc in them with the recommended daily allowance of the mineral. RDA is usually around 20% higher than the amount needed for half of the healthy people. 

  • Response to Liberation Pledge

    I learned about this DxE pledge on the great channel ModVegan, and commented: 

    Margaret, this is the first time I hear about this Liberation Pledge (thank you), and I am completely against it.

    Positive pear-pressure? They are calling for acts of public disrespect to the participants' closest people! The first result will be alienation of these people from their loved ones, colleagues, and clients, and in deep personal problems.

    Your alternative is much better, but every vegan would act this way in most situations anyway. I am a long-term vegan, BTW. 

Jeremy Bentham

The question is not, "Can they reason?" nor, "Can they talk?" but "Can they suffer?” 

Vitamin B9 Folic Acid

Vitamin B9, also called folate or folic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins.

  • Folic acid is the synthetic form of B9, found in supplements and fortified foods.
  • Folate occurs naturally in foods.

Folic acid is crucial for proper brain function and plays an important role in mental and emotional health. It aids in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material, and is especially important when cells and tissues are growing rapidly, such as in infancy, adolescence, and pregnancy.

Folic acid also works closely with vitamin B12 to help make red blood cells and help iron work properly in the body.

Rich sources of folate include: spinach, dark leafy greens, asparagus, mustard greens, brussels sprouts, beans, soybeans, root vegetables, whole grains, oranges, avocado. 

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