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Aggregated definitions of terms used on Fruitarian's Network. A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term - a word, a phrase, or a set of other symbols.
Body weight - person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, pounds, or stones and pounds. Body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 - overweight.
BMI, body mass index - a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height.
Obesity increases the likelihood of diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, low levels of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.
On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi - fungi which bear large fruiting structures - that are either harvested wild or cultivated.
Some mushrooms that are edible for most people can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, and old or improperly stored specimens can cause food poisoning. Deadly poisonous mushrooms that are frequently confused with edible mushrooms and cause fatal poisonings. Mushrooms growing in polluted locations can accumulate toxins (e.g. heavy metals).
Antioxidants - substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, selenium, vitamins A, C and E.
Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. There is good evidence that eating a diet with lots of vegetables and fruits is healthy and lowers risks of certain diseases. But it isn't clear whether this is because of the antioxidants, something else in the foods, or other factors. Most clinical studies of antioxidant supplements have not found them to provide substantial health benefits.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
No fungi, plants, nor animals (including humans) are capable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaea have the enzymes needed for its synthesis. Proved food sources of B12 are animal products (meat, fish, dairy products). Some research states that certain non-animal products possibly can be a natural source of B12 because of bacterial symbiosis.
B12 is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through a bacterial fermentation-synthesis. This synthetic B12 is used to fortify foods and sold as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show pharmacological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt (chemical symbol Co). The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption.
B12 aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease.
Recommended daily amount: 2.4 mcg.
Example sources: fortified cereals, doenjang and chunggukjang (fermented soybeans), nori (seaweed).
Water is an essential nutrient - it is required in amounts that exceed the body's ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen.
Most foods contain water. The body can usually get 20% of its total water requirements from solid foods alone. The human body can last weeks without food, but only days without water.
The digestion process also produces water as a byproduct and can provide around 10 per cent of the body’s water requirements.
Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms.
Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 97% of the planet's crust water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps. Only 2.5% of this water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes.
Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other lifeforms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. ~One billion people still lack access to safe water. It was estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability, and by 2030 water demand in some developing regions of the world will exceed supply by 50%.
Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture.
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Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products, one of the basic food groups.
Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (or dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The table sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose - hydrolyses into fructose and glucose in the body. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides.
Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol.
Fiber is consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans, cellulose, and many other plant components such as resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignin, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides, and are derived from plants. Dietary fibers are not digested by gastrointestinal enzymes. Soluble fiber dissolves in water, changes as it goes through the digestive tract, where it is fermented by bacteria, partially into physiologically active byproducts - healthful compounds. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and stays intact as it moves through your digestive system, can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Dietary fibers can change absorption of other nutrients and chemicals. Some soluble plant fibers can modulate intestinal inflammation and are contrabiotic. Many types of so-called dietary fiber are not actually fibrous.