All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Definitions

Aggregated definitions of terms used on Fruitarian's Network. A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term - a word, a phrase, or a set of other symbols.

A plant-based diet is a diet of any animal (including humans) based on foods derived from plants, including vegetables, whole grains, legumes and fruits, but with few or no animal products

"Plant-based diet" has been used to refer to the following diets:

  • Vegan diet - no food from animal sources.
    • Fruitarian  - consists primarily of fruit.
    • Raw vegan - food is uncooked and sometimes dehydrated.
  • Vegetarian - plant foods, may include eggs and dairy, but no meat.
  • Ovo-lacto vegetarian - includes dairy and eggs.
  • Ovo vegetarian - includes eggs but no dairy. 
  • Lacto vegetarian - includes dairy but no eggs.
  • Pescatarian - diet with eggs, dairy and seafood.
  • Semi-vegetarian - with occasional inclusion of meat.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea. 

There are millions types of viruses, ~ 5,000 virus species have been described in detail. Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem and are the most abundant type of biological entity. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear. 

While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, virions, which consist of the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, a protein coat, and in some cases an outer coat of lipids. Virion is about one one-hundredth the size of a bacterium.

Lifestyle - interests, opinions, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture. 

Personal lifestyle typically reflects individual attitudes, way of life, values, world view, and personal identity. Not all aspects of a lifestyle are voluntary. Surrounding social and technical systems can constrain the lifestyle choices available to the individual. Location is important factor of lifestyle. The nature of the neighborhood in which a person resides affects the set of lifestyles available to that person due to differences in degrees of affluence and proximity to natural and cultural environments. 

Lifestyle may include views on politics, religion, health, and intimacy.

For example, "green lifestyle" means holding beliefs and engaging in activities that consume fewer resources and produce less harmful waste, and deriving a sense of self from holding these beliefs and engaging in these activities.

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. 

The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have 20,000 - 25,000 genes. Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but less than 1% of genes are slightly different between people. Poplar tree genome suggests more than 45,000 genes.

Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid, help improve mental health, maintain steady digestion, regulate fertility health.

George Berkeley

To be is to be perceived.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products, one of the basic food groups.

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (or dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The table sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose - hydrolyses into fructose and glucose in the body. Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides. 

Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. 

Fiber is consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans, cellulose, and many other plant components such as resistant starch, resistant dextrins, inulin, lignin, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans, and oligosaccharides, and are derived from plants. Dietary fibers are not digested by gastrointestinal enzymes. Soluble fiber dissolves in water, changes as it goes through the digestive tract, where it is fermented by bacteria, partially into physiologically active byproducts - healthful compounds. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and stays intact as it moves through your digestive system, can be prebiotic and metabolically ferment in the large intestine. Dietary fibers can change absorption of other nutrients and chemicals. Some soluble plant fibers can modulate intestinal inflammation and are contrabiotic. Many types of so-called dietary fiber are not actually fibrous.

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