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Body weight - person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, pounds, or stones and pounds. Body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 - overweight. 

BMI, body mass index - a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. 

Obesity increases the likelihood of diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, low levels of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.

On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

Charles Darwin

There is no fundamental difference between man and animals in their ability to feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery. 

Undernutrition

Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition. (Malnutrition also includes overnutrition).

Undernutrition can result from:

  • inadequate ingestion of nutrients,
  • malabsorption,
  • impaired metabolism,
  • loss of nutrients due to diarrhea,
  • increased nutritional requirements.

Undernutrition progresses in stages: it may develop slowly when it is due to anorexia or very rapidly. First, nutrient levels in blood and tissues change, followed by intracellular changes in biochemical functions and structure. Ultimately, symptoms and signs appear. Diagnosis is by history, physical examination, body composition analysis, and sometimes laboratory tests. 

Undernutrition from micronutrient deficiencies, or "hidden hunger", affects over 2 billion people globally and can lead to reduced growth and cognitive development, birth defects, blindness, and overall poor health. Vitamin A deficiencyiron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders are among the most common forms of micronutrient malnutrition. 

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