Grains are small, hard, dry seeds, with or without attached hulls or fruit layers, harvested for human or animal consumption. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals (e.g. wheat, rye) and legumes (e.g. beans, soybeans). Seeds
After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods, such as starchy fruits (e.g. plantains, breadfruit) and tubers (e.g. sweet potatoes, cassava). This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported, stored for long periods, and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Major global commodity markets exist for canola, maize, rice, soybeans, wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops.
Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins:
Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, 4 carotenoids)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Vitamin D (D3 - Cholecalciferol, D2 - Ergocalciferol)
Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)
Vitamin K (phylloquinone, menaquinones)
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue: vitamins A, D, E, K.
Water-soluble vitamins - the body must use almost all water-soluble vitamins right away - vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and C. Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years.