Seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperms and angiosperms plants, that now dominate biological niches on land.
The term "seed" also has a general meaning of anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes (tubers), "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds".
Many structures commonly referred to as "seeds" are actually dry fruits. Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed.
Nuts are the one-seeded, hard-shelled fruit of some plants with an indehiscent seed (acorn, hazelnut).
Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.
The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.
Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline
Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
Soybeans - 124 mg
Lima beans - 97 mg
Lentils - 96 mg
Peas (mature) - 96 mg
Flaxseeds - 79 mg
Pistachio nuts - 71 mg
Quinoa - 70 mg
Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) - 63 mg
Cashew nuts - 61 mg
Pine nuts - 56 mg
Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg
Buckwheat - 54 mg
Almonds - 52 mg
Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion: