Vitamin B9, also called folate or folic acid, is one of 8 B vitamins.
Folic acid is the synthetic form of B9, found in supplements and fortified foods.
Folate occurs naturally in foods.
Folic acid is crucial for proper brain function and plays an important role in mental and emotional health. It aids in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material, and is especially important when cells and tissues are growing rapidly, such as in infancy, adolescence, and pregnancy.
Folic acid also works closely with vitamin B12 to help make red blood cells and help iron work properly in the body.
An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella.
People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora.
Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats.
Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.
Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention.
Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans.