Forest trees and their root fungi share resources and information. The plant makes and delivers food to the fungus; the fungus increases the plant’s water and mineral absorptive powers. Trees of different species can communicate with and support one another via their mycorrhizae.
It is known, that plants can communicate with unrelated species through the air. Plants getting chomped by herbivores, eaten by insects or attacked by pathogens release volatile chemicals that are sensed by neighboring plants, who up their defenses pro-actively.
A tree is a plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years.
A variety of plant species have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches to compete for sunlight. In more general sense, tall palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. The roots branch out under the ground to anchor the tree and to extract moisture and nutrients from the soil. Above ground, the branches usually bear leaves, which capture light.
Trees reduce erosion and moderate the climate. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of animals and plants. Some trees provide edible fruit.