All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Annotation of the first few complete plant genomes has revealed that plants have many genes. For Arabidopsis, over 26,500 gene loci have been predicted, whereas for rice, the number adds up to 41,000. Recent analysis of the poplar genome suggests more than 45,000 genes... 

One explanation for the large increase in gene number during angiosperm evolution is gene duplication. It has been shown previously that the retention of duplicates following small- and large-scale duplication events in plants is substantial. Taking into account the function of genes that have been duplicated, we are now beginning to understand why many plant genes might have been retained, and how their retention might be linked to the typical lifestyle of plants.

Charles Darwin

There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher animals in their mental faculties . . . The lower animals, like man, manifestly feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery.

Nitrogen Balance

Nitrogen balance is a measure of nitrogen input minus nitrogen output

Nitrogen Balance = Nitrogen intake - Nitrogen loss

Nitrogen is a fundamental component of amino acids, which are the molecular building blocks of protein. Measuring nitrogen inputs and losses can be used to study protein metabolism. Apple