A study of marine mammals, birds, reptiles and fish shows a decline of 49% in the size of marine populations between 1970 and 2012.
All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena
Marine Animals Populations Half in 40 Years since 1970
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There is no fundamental difference between man and animals in their ability to feel pleasure and pain, happiness, and misery.
Minerals (nutrients) are inorganic substances (contain no carbon) that are necessary for normal body function and development.
Macro-minerals are needed in large doses (approximate recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) per day ):
- potassium, K (3500 mg) - metal, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells;
- chloride, Cl− (3400 mg) - essential electrolyte in all body fluids;
- sodium, Na, natrium (2400 mg) - metal, essential for all animals and some plants;
- calcium, Ca (1000 mg) - metal, essential for living organisms, produced in supernova nucleosynthesis;
- phosphorus, P (1000 mg) - in the form of the phosphate is required for all known forms of life;
- choline (425 - 550 mg) - essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently;
- magnesium, Mg (350 mg) - metal, essential for all known living organisms;
Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts (recommended daily intake, milligrams (mg) or micrograms (mcg) per day:
- iron, Fe (15 mg) - metal, found in nearly all living organisms;
- zinc, Zn (8 - 11 mg) - metal, essential for humans and other organisms;
- manganese, Mn (5 mg) - metal, toxic essential trace element;
- fluorine, F, fluoride ion, F− (3 - 4 mg) - a beneficial poisonous element, essential for bone solidity;
- copper, Cu (2 mg) - metal, essential to all living organisms;
- iodine, I (150 mcg) - a key component of thyroid hormones;
- selenium, Se (35 mcg) - toxic in large doses, essential micronutrient for animals;
- chromium, Cr (30 mcg) - chromium (III) is questionably essential for humans.