All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

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Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

  1. the total caloric content of the meals,
  2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

Macronutrients:

The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

  • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
  • Carbohydrates and fats5-15 %.

Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

Insulin

Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

Exercise

The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

  • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
  • and by anaerobic weight training.

"Negative"  Caloric Balance

Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

Pythagoras

As long as Man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace.

Body Weight, Obesity, and BMI

Body weight - person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, pounds, or stones and pounds. Body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 - overweight. 

BMI, body mass index - a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height. 

Obesity increases the likelihood of diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, low levels of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.

On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

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