All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

Thermic effect of food (TEF) is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. The effect varies substantially for different food components. The mechanism is unknown.

A commonly used estimate of the thermic effect of food is about 10% of one's caloric intake. 

The primary determinants of daily thermic effect are: 

  1. the total caloric content of the meals,
  2. the macronutrient composition of the meals ingested.

Macronutrients:

The thermic effect of food is the energy required for digestion, absorption, and disposal of ingested nutrients, and depends on the composition of the food consumed:

  • Protein: 20-35 % of the energy consumed,
  • Carbohydrates and fats5-15 %.

Meal frequency has little to no thermic effect. 

Insulin

Thermic effect also depends on the insulin sensitivity of the individual, with more insulin-sensitive individuals having a significant effect while individuals with increasing resistance have negligible to zero effects. Both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired thermic effect of food at rest, but "the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se."

Exercise

The thermic effect of food is marginally increased by 7-8 calories per hour with exercise:

  • aerobic training of sufficient duration and intensity
  • and by anaerobic weight training.

"Negative"  Caloric Balance

Celery, grapefruit, lemon, lime, apple, lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage are often claimed to have negative caloric balance, requiring more energy to digest than recovered from the food. There is no scientific evidence to show that any of these foods have a negative caloric impact.

Pythagoras

As long as Man continues to be the ruthless destroyer of lower living beings, he will never know health or peace.

Vitamin B12 Cobalamin

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

No fungi, plants, nor animals (including humans) are capable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaea have the enzymes needed for its synthesis. Proved food sources of B12 are animal products (meat, fish, dairy products). Some research states that certain non-animal products possibly can be a natural source of B12 because of bacterial symbiosis.

B12 is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through a bacterial fermentation-synthesis. This synthetic B12 is used to fortify foods and sold as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show pharmacological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt (chemical symbol Co). The vitamer is produced by bacteria as hydroxocobalamin, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin occurs in the body after consumption

B12 aids in lowering homocysteine levels and may lower the risk of heart disease. 

Recommended daily amount: 2.4 mcg

Example sources: fortified cereals, doenjang and chunggukjang (fermented soybeans), nori (seaweed). 

Fruitarians.net Apple