Case-control studies overall support a significant reduction in the risks of cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, and colorectum associated with both fruit and vegetables.
Breast cancer is associated with vegetables but not with fruit.
Bladder cancer is associated with fruit but not with vegetables.
The overall relative risk estimates from cohort studies suggest a protective effect of both fruit and vegetables for most cancer sites considered, but the risk reduction is significant only for cancers of the lung and bladder and only for fruit.
An enterotype is a classification of living organisms based on its bacteriological ecosystem in the gut microbiome. Humans can be roughly divided into three enterotypes depending on which genus of bacteria dominates their gut: Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, or Prevotella.
- People who eat a lot of meat and saturated fat tended to have more Bacteroides in their flora.
- Ruminococcus prevailed in people who consumed lots of alcohol and polyunsaturated fats.
- Prevotella favored a diet rich in carbohydrates.
Long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition. If switching gut enterotype is possible, it may take a long-term dietary intervention.
Chimpanzees have enterotypes that are compositionally analogous to those found in humans.