“Eat more fruits and vegetables” is timeless advice that has the backing of a large body of evidence. Vegetables and fruits provide fiber, slowly digested carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, and numerous phytonutrients that have been associated with protection against cardiovascular disease, aging-related vision loss due to cataract and macular degeneration, and maintenance of bowel function. The connection between vegetables and fruits and cancer is less well established. Although they do not have a blanket anticancer effect, fruits and vegetables may work against specific cancers, including esophageal, stomach, lung, and colorectal cancer.
Fruits and vegetables should be consumed in abundance, which means a minimum of five servings a day—and more is better. As few as 1 in 4 persons in the United States meet this guideline.
Patrick J. Skerrett, MA, Walter C. Willett
Choline is an essential vitamin-like (vitamin B4) nutrient, synthesized in human body, but not sufficiently.
The recommended adequate intake (AI) of choline is set at 425 milligrams (mg)/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
Choline deficiency causes muscle damage and abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, which results in a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Genetic predispositions and gender can influence individual variation in choline requirements.
Example Plant Fruitarian Sources of Choline
Seeds (including legumes and nuts), high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Soybeans - 124 mg
- Lima beans - 97 mg
- Lentils - 96 mg
- Peas (mature) - 96 mg
- Flaxseeds - 79 mg
- Pistachio nuts - 71 mg
- Quinoa - 70 mg
- Pumpkin and squash seed kernels (pepitas) - 63 mg
- Cashew nuts - 61 mg
- Pine nuts - 56 mg
- Sunflower seed kernels - 55 mg
- Buckwheat - 54 mg
- Almonds - 52 mg
Fruits, high in choline, milligrams per 100 g portion:
- Tomatoes, sun-dried - 105 mg
- Apples - 18 mg
- Figs - 16 mg
- Avocados - 14 mg