In man, physiological amounts of vitamin are absorbed by the intrinsic factor mediated mechanism exclusively in the ileum, the third portion of the small intestine. Human faeces contain appreciable quantities of vitamin B12 or vitamin B12-like material presumably produced by bacteria in the colon, but this is unavailable to the non-coprophagic individual. However, the human small intestine also often harbours a considerable microflora and this is even more extensive in apparently healthy southern Indian subjects. We now show that at least two groups of organisms in the small bowel, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella sp., may synthesise significant amounts of the vitamin.
All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena
B12 May Be Synthesized by Small Intestine Microflora
Similar by Tags
Top 20 Tags
The disappearance of a sense of responsibility is the most far-reaching consequence of submission to authority.
Ethics - moral principles that govern behavior of a person or a group.
Ethics can refer to standards of right and wrong that prescribe what a human ought to do. Ethical standards include standards relating to rights (e.g. right to life, the right to freedom from injury).
Laws, and social norms, or feelings can differ from what is ethical. It is necessary for individuals to frequently examine own standards to ensure that they are reasonable.
Ethics as moral philosophy involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. Moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.
As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions
- "What is the best way for people to live?"
- "What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?"
Axiology is the philosophical study of value, collective term for ethics and aesthetics - philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of worth.
Aesthetics studies the concepts of "beauty" and "harmony." Aesthetics (esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensori-emotional values. More broadly, aesthetics is defined as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."