All about fruitarianism with a long-term fruitarian, Lena

In man, physiological amounts of vitamin are absorbed by the intrinsic factor mediated mechanism exclusively in the ileum, the third portion of the small intestine. Human faeces contain appreciable quantities of vitamin B12 or vitamin B12-like material presumably produced by bacteria in the colon, but this is unavailable to the non-coprophagic individual. However, the human small intestine also often harbours a considerable microflora and this is even more extensive in apparently healthy southern Indian subjects. We now show that at least two groups of organisms in the small bowel, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella sp., may synthesise significant amounts of the vitamin.

Jeremy Bentham

The question is not, "Can they reason?" nor, "Can they talk?" but "Can they suffer?” 


Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid.

Provided by diet, phenylalanine can be converted into another amino acid, tyrosine, in the body. Tyrosine is used to synthesize two key neurotransmitters that promote alertness: dopamine and norepinephrine. 

It has 3 forms:

  • D-phenylalanine;
  • L-phenylalanine - most common, the form in which phenylalanine is incorporated into the body’s proteins;
  • DL-phenylalanine. Apple